Anger Management and Good Parenting

No guide book comes with parenting.  One learns from experience and trial and error.  First time parents may pick up a few cues for future children but even then different personalities pose different challenges.  One important aspect of parenting is controlling rage and anger.  Many bad habits can generationally slide to one household to the next and it is important if a victim of abuse or rage to stop the trend and create a home with peace and serenity.

Parents need to understand that children learn through example.  If they see bad or good behavior, they will mimic this behavior.  Anger and a quick temper is a learned behavior overall, so good example is critical.  This does not mean certain temperaments exist within different children, but nurture does have a strong impact when handing down better habits in life.  So parents need to show children than anger and violence is not the answer.

Parenting involves controlling anger in front of children too. Please review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Program


This starts with how parents treat each other and the child through discipline but also day to day to activities, whether driving or even working on something.  How one reacts plays big roles on how one’s children will react to similar situations.   Parents who try their best to control anger, show empathy, apologize when wrong, and discipline with control have a greater chance of gifting the world with caring and empathetic children who will not turn to violence or rage when confronted with issues.

The article, “When You Are an Angry Parent, Mind Your Temper” by Teronie Donaldson looks closer at how parents can play a positive impact in regards to anger management and controlling one’s temper when raising children.  The article states,

“Anger is a powerful emotion, and as parents, it’s essential to manage it effectively.  How we handle our anger impacts our well-being and sets an example for our children.  I remember hearing someone say that kids spend the rest of their lives getting over the first five years. That stuck with me because you must be very careful of what you say to kids in their formative years, or they will become adults with problems. I still remember some hurtful insults my mother said to me when I was a kid. I love her to pieces, but her wrath was vicious when she was mad.”

“When You Are an Angry Parent, Mind Your Temper”. Donaldson, T. (2023). The Good Men Project

To read the entire article, please click her



As parents, it is essential to recognize and understand the emotion of anger. Anger is a natural human response that can arise due to various factors such as stress, fatigue, or frustration. It is important to remember that experiencing anger as a parent does not make you a bad parent. However, how you manage and express your anger can significantly impact your child’s emotional well-being.

The Impact of Anger on Children

It is crucial to be aware of the effect that anger can have on children. When parents express their anger in an unhealthy or uncontrolled manner, it can lead to detrimental consequences for their children. Children may experience fear, anxiety, and a sense of instability when exposed to frequent outbursts of anger. It can also affect their self-esteem, as they may internalize their parents’ anger and blame themselves for causing it. Moreover, children who witness anger regularly may also develop behavioral issues and difficulties in managing their own emotions.

Why It’s Important to Manage Anger as a Parent

How parents manage stress and anger when around children is key to promoting better examples in life


Managing anger as a parent is essential for maintaining a harmonious home environment. When parents effectively manage their anger, they create a safe and nurturing space for their children to grow and thrive. By modeling healthy anger management techniques, parents teach their children valuable life skills, such as emotional regulation and conflict resolution. Additionally, managing anger helps parents build stronger and more positive relationships with their children, fostering open communication and understanding.

Identifying Triggers and Warning Signs of Anger

To effectively manage anger, it is essential to identify its triggers and warning signs. Triggers can be specific situations, behaviors, or thoughts that provoke anger. By recognizing these triggers, parents can be proactive in managing their emotional responses. Additionally, being aware of the warning signs, such as increased heart rate, tense muscles, or negative thoughts, allows parents to intervene before their anger escalates. Taking note of these triggers and warning signs is the first step in gaining control over anger as a parent.

Effective Strategies for Managing Anger in the Moment

When anger arises in the heat of the moment, it is crucial to have effective strategies in place to manage it constructively. One approach is to practice deep breathing exercises, which help regulate the body’s physiological response to anger. Taking slow, deep breaths can calm the nervous system and reduce feelings of anger. Another strategy is to take a brief timeout, stepping away from the situation to cool down and gain perspective. Engaging in physical activities, such as going for a walk or doing a quick workout, can also help release pent-up anger. Additionally, expressing anger assertively, rather than aggressively, can lead to more productive conversations and problem-solving.

Developing Healthy Coping Mechanisms for Long-Term Anger Management

While managing anger in the moment is important, developing healthy coping mechanisms for long-term anger management is equally crucial. Engaging in regular exercise, practicing mindfulness meditation, and seeking therapy or counseling are effective ways to address underlying issues that contribute to anger. Additionally, engaging in hobbies or activities that bring joy and relaxation can serve as healthy outlets for stress and frustration. By implementing these long-term coping mechanisms, parents can build resilience and prevent anger from becoming a recurring issue in their lives.

Communicating Effectively with Your Child During Moments of Anger

During moments of anger, it is vital to communicate effectively with your child to maintain a healthy relationship. Instead of resorting to yelling or harsh words, strive to express your feelings assertively and calmly. Use “I” statements to express how you feel without blaming or criticizing your child. Active listening is equally important; give your child the opportunity to express their emotions and concerns without interruption. By fostering open and respectful communication, parents can strengthen their bond with their child and resolve conflicts in a constructive manner.

Seeking Support and Resources for Anger Management as a Parent

Recognizing the need for support in managing anger is a sign of strength. Parents should not hesitate to seek professional help or join support groups specifically designed for anger management. Therapists or counselors can provide valuable guidance and techniques to help parents effectively manage their anger. Online resources, books, and workshops focused on anger management can also offer valuable insights and strategies. Remember, seeking support is not a sign of weakness but rather a proactive step toward creating a harmonious home environment.

Teaching Your Child to Manage Their Own Emotions

In addition to managing their own anger, parents play a vital role in teaching their children how to manage their emotions. Encourage your child to express their feelings in a healthy and constructive manner. Teach them techniques such as deep breathing, journaling, or engaging in creative activities to manage their anger. Additionally, help them identify their own triggers and warning signs, and guide them in finding appropriate coping mechanisms. By empowering children with these skills, parents equip them with the tools to navigate and regulate their emotions throughout their lives.

Conclusion: Creating a Harmonious Home Through Effective Anger Management

Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification and see if it meets your academic and professional goal


Mastering the art of managing anger as a parent is a journey that requires self-reflection, awareness, and consistent effort. By understanding anger, recognizing its impact on children, and actively seeking strategies for anger management, parents can create a harmonious home environment. Through effective communication, seeking support, and teaching children to manage their emotions, parents can foster emotional well-being and resilience in their children. Remember, managing anger is not about suppressing or eliminating the emotion entirely, but rather finding healthy ways to express and regulate it.

Also recall, one small word can harm a child mentally and emotionally.  The purpose of discipline itself is to correct not harm.

Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Program. The program is designed to train professionals to better help individuals deal with anger in a healthy way.  AIHCP’s program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification.


Additional Resources

“How To Manage Anger When You’re a Parent”. Crider, K. (2022). Healthline. Access here

“What to know about anger management for parents”. Sissons, B. (2022). Medical News Today. Access here

“PARENTS ANGER: TURNING DOWN THE HEAT IN YOUR HOME”. The Center for Parenting Education.  Access here

“Ready to Snap? Tips for Stressed-Out Parents” (2021). Health Essentials.  Cleveland Clinic.  Access here

Managing Your Teen’s Anger

Parenting has challenges that differ throughout the development of one’s child. Unique challenges can present themselves with different ages.  Some parents may be better with babies, while other parents may have better skills with teenagers.  Ultimately, being able to adjust to a child’s age and the changes the child goes through aids is critical to helping raise the child.   Teenage years are considered one of the most difficult times due to a variety of hormonal changes, social pressures, identity searching, and relationships with the opposite sex.   In addition, emotional outbursts and arguments are very common between parent and teen.   This strained period can be less difficult when parents are better able to maintain their anger and understand the inner psychology of their teen.

Parenting and learning how to manage an angry teen are important skills.


The article, “Take Time: Teenage anger and how to manage it” by Alisha Lalljee looks at better ways to help manage oneself as well as manage a teen’s anger.  She states,

“Adolescents are growing and changing and the hormones that drive puberty can have a big impact on mood. When children seem like they’re overreacting, it’s important to remember that they are less able to manage big feelings, like anger than adults are. The stereotype of the eye-rolling, door slamming rebellious adolescent is often played for laughs, but for parents dealing with the real thing, it’s anything but funny. Bitter outbursts, unpredictable mood swings and frequent battles about everything from school to friends to clothes to who’s going to set the table can leave parents feeling like they’re walking on eggshells. ”

“Take Time: Teenage anger and how to manage it”. Lalljee, A. (2023). The Indian Express.

To read the entire article, please access here



As parents, it is important to understand that anger is a normal emotion that everyone experiences. However, when anger becomes frequent, intense, or leads to destructive behaviors, it can become a cause for concern. Anger management is a crucial skill that teenagers need to develop in order to navigate through the challenges they face during this phase of their lives. By recognizing the signs and symptoms of anger issues in teens, parents can help their children develop effective strategies for anger management.

Signs and symptoms of anger issues in teens

Teenagers often struggle with effectively expressing their emotions, and anger can be one of the predominant emotions they experience. It is important for parents to be aware of the signs and symptoms that may indicate anger issues in their teens. These may include frequent outbursts of anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression, irritability, and a tendency to blame others for their problems. Additionally, teens with anger management issues may have difficulty controlling their anger and may engage in self-destructive behaviors such as substance abuse or self-harm. Recognizing these signs early on can help parents intervene and support their teens in managing their anger.

The impact of anger on teens’ mental health

Uncontrolled anger can have a significant impact on a teenager’s mental health. Constant feelings of anger, when not properly managed, can lead to increased stress and anxiety in teens. It can also negatively affect their self-esteem and interpersonal relationships. Teens with anger issues may struggle with maintaining healthy friendships and may experience conflict with their peers and family members. Furthermore, uncontrolled anger can lead to impulsive decision-making, putting teens at risk for engaging in risky behaviors. It is crucial for parents to address anger management in order to prevent these negative consequences and promote their teen’s overall well-being.

How parents can help with anger management

As parents, there are several strategies you can employ to help your teen manage their anger effectively. One of the most important steps is to foster open lines of communication with your teen. Encourage them to express their emotions and thoughts without judgment. By providing a safe space for your teen to share their feelings, you can help them gain a better understanding of their anger triggers and work towards managing their emotions more effectively.

Effective strategies for anger management in teens

Parents can play a key role in helping teens and adolescents learn to manage anger in a positive way.


Teaching healthy coping mechanisms for anger is crucial for teenagers to learn how to manage their emotions. Encourage your teen to practice deep breathing exercises or engage in physical activities such as jogging or yoga to help them channel their anger in a more productive way. Additionally, teaching them problem-solving skills can empower them to find constructive solutions to the issues that trigger their anger. Encourage your teen to identify their anger triggers and work with them to develop strategies for managing their anger in those situations.

Creating a supportive and calm environment at home

The home environment plays a crucial role in teenagers’ anger management. Creating a supportive and calm atmosphere at home can significantly impact your teen’s ability to manage their anger effectively. Establish clear and consistent rules and consequences, and be mindful of your own behavior as a parent. Model healthy ways of expressing anger and resolve conflicts peacefully. Encourage open communication and active listening within the family, as this can help your teen feel heard and understood, reducing the likelihood of anger outbursts.

Seeking professional help for anger management

If your teen’s anger issues persist despite your efforts, it may be beneficial to seek professional help. A mental health professional, such as a psychologist or therapist, can provide guidance and support for your teen in developing effective anger management strategies. They can also help identify any underlying issues that may contribute to your teen’s anger. Additionally, group therapy or anger management programs specifically designed for teenagers can offer a supportive environment for your teen to learn and practice effective anger management techniques.

Resources and tools for parents and teens

There are several resources and tools available to parents and teens to support effective anger management. Books and online resources dedicated to anger management for teenagers can provide valuable insights and strategies. Additionally, mobile applications and online courses are available to help teens develop and practice anger management techniques. Support groups and community organizations may also offer workshops or counseling services specifically tailored to teens with anger issues. Explore these resources to find the ones that best suit your teen’s needs.


Controlling anger is key in parenting. Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification


Anger management is a crucial skill for teenagers to develop as they navigate the challenges of adolescence. By understanding the signs and symptoms of anger issues in teens and implementing effective strategies, parents can support their teens in managing their anger in a healthy and constructive way. Teaching healthy coping mechanisms, creating a supportive home environment, and seeking professional help when necessary are essential steps in helping teens overcome their anger issues. With patience, understanding, and the right tools, parents can empower their teens to navigate their anger and promote their overall well-being

Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification and see if it matches your academic and professional goals.  The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification in Anger Management Consulting.
Additional Resources
“Living With an Angry Teenager? How to Support Them — and Yourself”. Swaim. E.  (2022).  Healthline.  Access here
“Coping with an Angry Teenager”. Wallace, M. (2018). Psychology Today.  Access here
“How Parents Can Help Troubled Teens Cope With Anger”. Rudlin, K. (2020). VeryWellMind.  Access here
“7 Powerful Parenting Tips for Handling a Defiant Teen”. Ericson, K. (2022). Your Teen. Access here


Teaching Young Children Control Over Anger

Teaching children at a young age to cope with emotion and especially anger is crucial in child development.  As social beings, individuals need to learn how to properly integrate into society with their emotions.  The first place they feel and learn to manage emotion is in the home.  Parents hence play a key role in teaching children how to better cope and control emotions.  Fostering the child with love and others way to express frustration are key skills for future life.  In addition, parents can teach their children best via example.  Through emotional control and limited out bursts in the home, children can learn good and positive examples regarding anger.

Anger Management can help teach kids to manage emotions. Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Program


The article, “6 Hacks to help your toddler deal with anger” from the Middleburg Observer reviews 6 ways one can help teach toddlers and young children better ways to express anger and intense emotion.  The article states,

“Toddlers are adorable bundles of energy and curiosity, but they can also have quite a temper! Dealing with a tiny tot’s anger outbursts might seem like an overwhelming task, but fear not! With a sprinkle of patience, a dash of creativity, and a lot of love, you can help your little one navigate through these fiery emotions. So, let’s dive into six ways to help your toddler deal with anger.”

“6 Hacks to help your toddler deal with anger”. Middleburg Observer. (2023).

To review the entire article, please click here


As parents and caregivers, it is important for us to understand the complex world of emotions that children experience. One of the most common emotions that children may struggle with is anger. Anger in kids can manifest in various ways and can have a significant impact on their emotional well-being. By understanding the underlying causes of anger and equipping ourselves with strategies to support them, we can help our children navigate their emotions more effectively.

The Impact of Anger on Children’s Emotional Well-being

Anger, when left unaddressed or misunderstood, can have detrimental effects on a child’s emotional well-being. It can affect their self-esteem, relationships with others, and overall mental health. Children who struggle with anger may feel overwhelmed, frustrated, and helpless. They may exhibit aggressive behaviors or withdraw from social interactions. It is crucial for us, as adults, to provide a safe and supportive environment where children can learn to manage their anger in healthy ways.

Common Triggers for Anger in Kids

Anger Management Specialists can help teach children how to manage their emotions


Understanding the triggers that can lead to anger in children is essential in helping them manage their emotions. Some common triggers for anger in kids include:

  1. Frustration: Children may become angry when they encounter obstacles or challenges that they find difficult to overcome.
  2. Lack of control: Kids may feel angry when they perceive a loss of control in their lives or when their opinions and choices are disregarded.
  3. Fatigue or hunger: Being tired or hungry can make children more prone to anger and irritability.
  4. Unmet needs: When children’s basic needs, such as attention, affection, or security, are not met, they may express their anger.
  5. Environmental factors: External factors like noise, overcrowding, or chaotic situations can contribute to feelings of anger in children.

By identifying these triggers, we can help children recognize and manage their anger in a constructive manner.

Signs and Symptoms of Anger in Children

Recognizing the signs and symptoms of anger in children is crucial in supporting them effectively. Some common signs that a child may be experiencing anger include:

  1. Physical signs: Clenched fists, raised voice, flushed face, increased heart rate, and aggressive body language.
  2. Verbal expressions: Shouting, name-calling, and using aggressive language.
  3. Behavioral changes: Aggressive behaviors towards others or objects, throwing tantrums, and refusing to comply with rules or instructions.
  4. Withdrawal: Some children may withdraw and become silent when they are angry, avoiding eye contact or isolating themselves from others.
  5. Disruptive behaviors: Children may display disruptive behaviors such as hitting, kicking, or biting when they are angry.

By being attentive to these signs, we can intervene early and provide the necessary support to help children manage their anger effectively.

The Importance of Emotional Intelligence in Managing Anger

Emotional intelligence plays a crucial role in helping children manage their anger. It involves recognizing, understanding, and regulating emotions in oneself and others. By developing emotional intelligence, children can better understand their anger, its triggers, and their own emotional responses. Here are some strategies to help children develop emotional intelligence and effectively manage their anger:

  1. Emotion identification: Encourage children to identify and label their emotions, including anger. This helps them develop a vocabulary for expressing their feelings.
  2. Emotion regulation: Teach children techniques for calming themselves down when they feel angry, such as deep breathing exercises, counting to ten, or engaging in a calming activity like drawing or listening to music.
  3. Empathy: Help children develop empathy by encouraging them to consider others’ perspectives and feelings. This can help them understand the impact of their anger on others and develop more compassionate responses.
  4. Problem-solving: Teach children problem-solving skills to help them find constructive solutions to their anger triggers. Encourage them to brainstorm alternative ways of responding to situations that make them angry.
  5. Self-reflection: Encourage children to reflect on their anger episodes and identify patterns or triggers. This self-awareness can empower them to make conscious choices in managing their anger in the future.

By fostering emotional intelligence, we can equip our children with the necessary tools to effectively manage their anger and navigate challenging emotions.

Strategies for Supporting Angry Kids in Managing their Feelings

When faced with an angry child, it is essential to provide them with the support and guidance they need to manage their feelings in a healthy way. Here are some strategies to help support angry kids:

  1. Stay calm: As adults, it is crucial for us to model calm and composed behavior when dealing with an angry child. This helps create a safe space for them to express their emotions without fear of judgment or punishment.
  2. Active listening: Practice active listening by giving the child your full attention and letting them express their feelings without interruption. Reflect back their emotions to show that you understand and empathize with them.
  3. Validation: Validate the child’s feelings by acknowledging and accepting their anger. Let them know that it is okay to feel angry but emphasize the importance of expressing it in a respectful and non-harmful manner.
  4. Teach coping skills: Teach the child healthy coping skills to manage their anger, such as deep breathing, taking a break, or using positive self-talk. Encourage them to practice these skills regularly to build resilience.
  5. Offer alternatives: Help the child identify alternative ways to express their anger, such as using words to communicate their feelings or engaging in physical activities like running or jumping to release pent-up energy.

By implementing these strategies, we can create a supportive environment where angry kids feel heard, understood, and empowered to manage their emotions.

Teaching Anger Management Skills to Children

Teaching children how to cope and deal with anger is a fundamental life skill


Teaching children effective anger management skills is a valuable investment in their emotional well-being. Here are some techniques to help children develop these skills:

  1. Identify triggers: Help children identify the specific situations or events that trigger their anger. Encourage them to keep a journal or use visual aids to track and analyze their anger triggers.
  2. Develop a calm-down plan: Work with the child to create a personalized calm-down plan that includes strategies they can use when they feel angry. This could include taking deep breaths, counting to ten, or using visualization techniques.
  3. Practice relaxation techniques: Teach children relaxation techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, or mindfulness exercises. These techniques can help them reduce stress and manage anger more effectively.
  4. Role-play: Engage in role-playing scenarios with the child to help them practice alternative ways of responding to anger triggers. Encourage them to explore different strategies and discuss the outcomes.
  5. Reinforce positive behavior: Recognize and praise the child when they manage their anger effectively. Positive reinforcement can motivate them to continue practicing their anger management skills.

By consistently teaching and reinforcing these skills, we can empower children to become more aware of their anger and develop healthy strategies for managing it.

Creating a Supportive Environment for Angry Kids

In addition to teaching anger management skills, creating a supportive environment is crucial for helping angry kids manage their emotions. Here are some ways to foster a supportive environment:

  1. Open communication: Encourage open and honest communication within the family. Create a safe space where children feel comfortable expressing their emotions and discussing challenging situations without fear of judgment or criticism.
  2. Set clear boundaries: Establish clear and consistent boundaries for behavior. Clearly communicate expectations and consequences to help children understand the limits and feel secure.
  3. Model healthy coping strategies: Be a positive role model by demonstrating healthy ways of managing anger and stress. Children learn by observing, so it is important to showcase effective coping strategies and self-regulation techniques.
  4. Encourage physical activity: Engage children in physical activities to help them release pent-up energy and reduce anger. Encouraging regular exercise can have a positive impact on their overall emotional well-being.
  5. Promote self-care: Teach children the importance of self-care and provide opportunities for them to engage in activities that bring them joy and relaxation. This can include hobbies, creative outlets, or spending time in nature.

By creating a supportive environment, we can help angry kids feel understood, valued, and equipped to manage their emotions in healthy ways.

Seeking Professional Help for Anger Management in Children

In some cases, anger in children may persist despite our best efforts to support them. It is important to recognize when professional help may be necessary. Anger Management Consultant Professionals can help.  Here are some signs that indicate the need for professional intervention:

  1. Persistent and intense anger: If a child’s anger seems excessive, intense, or lasts for extended periods, it may be a sign of underlying emotional or behavioral issues that require professional assessment.
  2. Aggressive behaviors: If a child’s anger escalates to physical aggression towards others or themselves, it is crucial to seek professional help immediately to ensure their safety and well-being.
  3. Impact on daily functioning: If a child’s anger significantly interferes with their daily life, relationships, or academic performance, it may be beneficial to consult with a mental health professional.
  4. Co-occurring difficulties: If a child’s anger is accompanied by other concerns such as depression, anxiety, or trauma, a comprehensive evaluation by a professional can help determine the best course of treatment.

Remember, seeking professional help is not a sign of failure but rather a proactive step towards helping your child develop healthy coping mechanisms and improve their overall well-being.

Conclusion: Empowering Angry Kids to Manage their Emotions

Please review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification and see if it meets your academic and professional goals


Supporting angry kids in managing their emotions requires patience, understanding, and a commitment to their well-being. By understanding the impact of anger on children’s emotional well-being, recognizing common triggers, and developing strategies to support them, we can empower them to navigate their emotions effectively. Teaching emotional intelligence, providing anger management skills, and creating a supportive environment are key components in helping angry kids develop healthy coping mechanisms. However, if a child’s anger persists or escalates, seeking professional help is crucial. By working together, we can unlock the emotional intelligence of angry kids and help them build a foundation for a healthier and happier future.

If you are struggling to support your child in managing their anger or if their anger is causing significant distress, it is important to seek professional help. Reach out to a mental health professional who specializes in working with children and adolescents. They can provide the guidance and support needed to address your child’s specific needs and help them develop effective coping strategies. Remember, you are not alone in this journey, and there is support available to empower you and your child.

Anger Management Consultants can help teach kids better management.  Licensed Counselors can also give the needed support.  Some counselors are also Anger Management Certified.

Please review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification and see if it matches your academic and professional goals.  The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification in Anger Management.


Additional Resources

“7 Ways to Help a Child Cope With Anger”. Morin, A, (2021). VeryWellFamily. Access here

“How to Deal With Disrespectful Adult Children”. Bernstein, J. (2020). Psychology Today.  Access here

“How to Respond to an Angry Child”. Whitson, S. (2021). Psychology Today. Access here

“Anger Management for Kids: 14 Best Activities & Worksheets”. Sutton, J. (2021). PositivePsychology.Com.  Access here


Anger and Emotional Avoidance

Anger sometimes builds up within an individual.  One way anger can build is through emotional avoidance.  Whether the individual is avoiding one’s emotions or whether the individual is ignoring others, avoidance can cause a build up of anger and frustration.  When other emotions are not dealt with or recognized in others, it can lead to issues in how one reacts.  The vent up emotional energy finds it outlet via anger.

Emotional Avoidance can lead to anger issues. Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification


It is hence important to be more open with oneself and others regarding emotion , as well as, recognizing others emotional needs and not hiding from them.  Unfortunately avoidance is not always about being selfish but is usually due to a trauma where individuals are uncomfortable facing emotion.  Anger is hence a side effect of that neglect of emotional recognition.  The article,”How Emotional Avoidance Contributes to Anger” by Bernard Golden, PhD.  looks closer at how emotional avoidance can lead to anger.  He state regarding emotional avoidance that…

“It is then no surprise that we may be more vulnerable to tension and conflict within ourselves and have related irritability with others and ourselves. It is this irritability that can foster a propensity for anger arousal, anger that serves as a reaction to and distraction from such tension. It directs our attention outward, attributes responsibility to others, or may lead us to displace our anger toward others. In each instance, it moves us further away from true connection with and understanding of ourselves.”

Golden, B. (2023). How Emotional Avoidance Contributes to Anger.  Psychology Today.

To review the entire article, please click here


Golden further discusses various ways one can become less detached from one’s emotions and how to take a more conscious step towards recognizing them and also validating emotions in others.  In dealing with emotional avoidance and preventing anger, there are numerous ways to better become more in touch with oneself through mindfulness, journaling and finding someone within a circle of trust that one can share emotions with.

Understanding Emotional Avoidance

Emotional avoidance refers to the tendency to suppress or ignore our emotions rather than facing them head-on. It is a defense mechanism that many people employ to protect themselves from pain, discomfort, or vulnerability. However, while it may provide temporary relief, emotional avoidance can have serious long-term consequences for our mental health and overall well-being.  Long term anger issues can result by burying emotions.

The Impact of Emotional Avoidance on Mental Health

It is important to recognize and address emotions within oneself to avoid future stress, depression, anger and anxiety


Emotional avoidance can have a detrimental effect on our mental health. When we consistently avoid our emotions, they tend to build up and intensify over time. This can lead to increased feelings of anxiety, depression, and even physical symptoms such as headaches or stomachaches. Additionally, emotional avoidance prevents us from gaining insight into our own thoughts and feelings, hindering personal growth and self-awareness.

Signs and Symptoms of Emotional Avoidance

Recognizing the signs and symptoms of emotional avoidance is crucial in order to address and overcome this harmful pattern. Some common signs of emotional avoidance include excessive busyness or workaholism, substance abuse or addictive behaviors, chronic irritability or anger, and a general sense of emotional numbness or disconnection. If you find yourself constantly avoiding or suppressing your emotions, it is important to take a step back and evaluate the impact this may be having on your overall well-being.

The Dangers of Suppressing Emotions

Suppressing or bottling up our emotions may seem like a convenient way to avoid discomfort. However, the long-term consequences can be severe. When we suppress our emotions, they don’t simply disappear; instead, they linger beneath the surface, affecting our thoughts, behaviors, and relationships. Suppressing emotions can lead to increased stress levels, decreased immune function, and a higher risk of developing mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression.  Anger can also over time build up when emotions are not properly handled and addressed. It is essential to recognize the dangers of emotional suppression and take proactive steps to address our emotions in a healthy and constructive manner.

The Benefits of Confronting Emotions

Those who avoid emotions and the emotions of others eventually feel issues of anger from within


While confronting our emotions may initially seem daunting, it is a necessary step towards personal growth and well-being. When we confront our emotions, we gain a deeper understanding of ourselves and our needs. This self-awareness allows us to make better decisions, form healthier relationships, and cultivate a greater sense of fulfillment and happiness. Additionally, confronting our emotions provides an opportunity for healing and growth, allowing us to process past traumas and move forward with a renewed sense of purpose and resilience.

Techniques for Confronting and Processing Emotions

Confronting and processing emotions can be challenging, but there are various techniques that can help facilitate this important work. One effective technique is journaling, where you can express and explore your emotions in a safe and non-judgmental space. Another technique is mindfulness, which involves being fully present and accepting of your emotions without judgment. This allows you to observe and acknowledge your emotions without becoming overwhelmed by them. Seeking support from trusted friends, family members, or a therapist can also provide valuable guidance and perspective as you navigate your emotional journey.

Overcoming the Fear of Facing Emotions

Many individuals avoid confronting their emotions out of fear. The fear of being overwhelmed, judged, or rejected can be powerful barriers to emotional healing. However, it is important to remember that emotions are a natural part of the human experience, and suppressing them only prolongs our suffering. Overcoming the fear of facing emotions involves challenging negative beliefs and adopting a compassionate and nurturing mindset towards ourselves. It may also be helpful to seek professional help or join support groups where you can connect with others who are going through similar experiences.

Seeking Professional Help for Emotional Avoidance

If emotional avoidance has become deeply ingrained and is significantly impacting your daily life, seeking professional help can be a crucial step towards healing. A therapist or counselor can provide guidance and support as you navigate your emotional journey. They can help you identify underlying patterns and beliefs that contribute to emotional avoidance and provide you with effective strategies for confronting and processing your emotions in a healthy and constructive manner. Remember, seeking help is not a sign of weakness but rather a courageous step towards self-improvement and well-being.  Anger Management Consultants can also help with any anger issues relating from emotional avoidance.

Creating a Healthy Emotional Well-being Routine

In addition to seeking professional help, creating a healthy emotional well-being routine can greatly support your journey towards confronting and processing your emotions. This routine may include activities such as regular exercise, practicing mindfulness or meditation, engaging in hobbies or creative outlets, and prioritizing self-care. It is important to find what works best for you and to make these practices a consistent part of your daily life. By nurturing your emotional well-being, you are investing in your overall happiness and long-term mental health.

Conclusion: Embracing Emotions for a Happier and Healthier Life

In conclusion, emotional avoidance may provide temporary relief, but it ultimately hinders our personal growth and well-being. By confronting and processing our emotions, we gain insight, resilience, and a greater capacity for joy and fulfillment. It is essential to recognize the signs of emotional avoidance, understand the dangers of suppressing our emotions, and take proactive steps towards embracing and processing our emotions in a healthy and constructive manner. Remember, seeking professional help and creating a healthy emotional well-being routine are vital components of this journey. By prioritizing our emotional well-being, we can live happier, healthier, and more fulfilling lives.

Anger Management Consultants can help individuals face emotions and also deal with undealt with anger


CTA: If you find yourself struggling with emotional avoidance, reach out to a therapist or counselor who can provide the support and guidance you need on your journey towards emotional well-being. Remember, you deserve to live a life that is not defined by avoidance, but rather by courage and self-discovery.

Anger Management Consultants can also help individuals face anger issues resulting from emotional avoidance.  Please review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consultant Program and see if it meets your academic and professional goals.  The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification in Anger Management Consulting.


Additional Readings

“Repressed Anger and Emotional Avoidance: 5 Ways to Find the Positive in Negative Emotion”. Riddle, J. (2019). Psycom.  Access here

“8 Ways People Avoid Their Emotions”. Boyes, A. (2021) Psychology Today.  Access here

“5 Symptoms of Repressed Anger”. Lo, I. (2022). Psychology Today.  Access here

“Repressing Emotions: 10 Ways to Reduce Emotional Avoidance”. Attard. A. (2020).  Access here

Anger Management Consulting Certification Blog on Cold Repressed Anger

Cold or repressed anger lingers.  When individuals do not in a healthy way express anger or situations, then other passive ways of aggression can emerge.  Anger is a healthy emotion when properly channeled and it is important to communicate anger in a good and safe way to others.  When anger is allowed and permitted to linger it can lead to bigger problems and issues later down the road.

It is important to communicate anger in a healthy way. Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification


The article,”Speaking Up When Most Stressed” by Lorlan Oberlin discusses why it is important to communicate and speak when stressed and not to let it sit within.  She states,

“Build an emotional vocabulary to label negative emotions. This removes the fear of expressing yourself. Find feeling charts/wheels online through an image search. List words using a thesaurus. Choose the precise feeling word which may reveal vulnerability. That’s okay. Opening up and being vulnerable leads to deeper interpersonal connection and intimacy for romantic relationships.”

To read the entire article, please click here

Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification and see if it meets your academic and professional goals.  The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification in Anger Management Consulting.

Anger and Violence in Society

Anger is a complex emotion that is characterized by feelings of frustration, annoyance, and hostility. It is often triggered by a perceived threat or injustice. When someone feels angry, they may experience physiological changes such as an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. This can lead to aggressive behaviors such as yelling or violence.
Anger is a normal and healthy emotion. However, it can become problematic if it is expressed in unhealthy ways or if it is constantly present.  Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification.

The ability to control one’s anger is a critical life skill. Anger is a natural emotion, but it can become problematic when it is not managed in a healthy way. Some people have difficulty controlling their anger, which can lead to problems at home, work, and in social situations. There are a number of strategies that can be used to control anger. These include relaxation techniques, cognitive restructuring, and problem-solving.  Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Courses

Anger management refers to the process of recognizing and regulating one’s own emotions, as well as the emotions of others. It is a skillset that can be learned and practiced in order to better manage aggressive impulses, handle conflict constructively, and maintain healthier relationships.
There are a number of different approaches to anger management, but all share the common goal of helping individuals identify and cope with the triggers and symptoms of anger in a more productive way.

When one does not manage one’s anger, a variety of issues can arise in life.  Hence it is critical to employ anger management strategies.  Anger however is seen in a variety of issues where it is not healthy or productive but dangerous to everyone.

Domestic violence is a large problem due to uncontrolled anger. Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Program


Illicit anger can cause havoc in the home life.  Domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner. Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person. This includes any behaviors that intimidate, manipulate, humiliate, isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound someone.  Many families deal with domestic violence.  It may not just by physical in nature but may also be mental.  While men usually resort to physical abuse, many women can also be perpetrators through emotional abuse.

There is no one answer to addressing the issue of domestic violence. However, various experts agree that there are some key steps that can be taken in order to effectively address and prevent domestic violence.  Some of the key steps that can be taken to address domestic violence include: increasing public awareness and education about the issue, strengthening legal protections and penalties for perpetrators of domestic violence, and increasing access to support services for survivors of domestic violence.  If you are in immediate danger, call 911. If you cannot talk on the phone, try to text or use social media to reach out for help. Once you are safe, you can call a national hotline like the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-7233.

Dangerous anger is not just left at home but it can also follow one to the work place.  Displaced anger can travel back and forth between home and work and manifest in either environments.

Workplace anger is a type of emotion that is characterized by feeling mad or frustrated while at work. This type of emotion can be caused by a variety of things, such as feeling like you are not being appreciated or feeling like you are not being compensated fairly. Workplace anger can also be caused by feeling like your work is not fulfilling or challenging enough. Whatever the cause, workplace anger can lead to negative outcomes, such as decreased productivity, decreased job satisfaction, and even quitting your job.  In addition work place anger can lead to more violence with shootings via disgruntled individuals.

There are a few things you can do to stop workplace anger. First, try to identify the source of your anger. Is it your boss? A co-worker? Once you know who or what is causing your anger, you can try to address the issue directly. If that’s not possible or if the issue is not resolved, you can try to distance yourself from the person or situation that’s causing your anger. Finally, you can try to reframe your thinking about the situation.

In addition, anger and unresolved issues find its place in schools.  School shootings over unresolved anger or bullying can erupt quickly.  School violence is a serious problem in today’s society. It includes any form of violence, whether it is physical, verbal, or emotional, that takes place within the school setting. School violence can have a negative impact on the students, the staff, and the overall climate of the school. It is important for schools to take measures to prevent and address school violence.
Violence and anger in schools are a national crisis. Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting


There are a number of ways to address the problem of school violence. One approach is to increase security measures such as metal detectors and security guards. Another approach is to provide more support services for students who may be at risk for violence. This might include counseling, conflict resolution training, and after-school programs.
Still another approach is to address the underlying causes of school violence. This might involve working with families and communities to reduce poverty and improve mental health services.  Teachers, administrators, and students all have a role to play in stopping school violence. By working together, we can make our schools safe places for learning
Lack of proper anger management and utilization of skills associated with it lead to these three types of violence.  It is important to see the issues that can erupt from the inability at a young age to control rage and anger.  The family and its interactions with society in public sphere all become affected by the inability to control the emotion of anger.  Again anger itself is not the villain but improper control of it.  When not controlled properly or managed, it leaks into every social aspect of society.
Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification and see if it meets your academic and professional goals. The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification in Anger Management.
Additional Resources
Anger Management by WebMD contributors
Workplace Violence from the US Department of Labor

Anger Management Consulting Certification Blog on the Negative Results of Yelling

One thing angry people usually think nothing of is how they make others feel.  If there is one thing a good person who may have a temper should consider is how they make others feel and try to correct it.  Anger Management can help individuals develop skills to control tempers and reduce yelling.  Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification

Yelling has negative effects on people. Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Program


The reality is words and yelling have negative effects on friends and family.  The negative effects on family and friends are something those with a temper should take into consideration.  It is one of the biggest reasons to learn to control anger and a violent temper.

The article, “The Psychological Effects of Being Yelled At” by Carrie Modermo looks closer at how people are negatively affected through the yelling of angry individuals.  She states,

“Yelling is a common occurrence in most households, and it’s estimated that about 90% of American parents have reported using harsh verbal discipline at least once.1 This tends to use psychological force to cause emotional pain or discomfort. The purpose of yelling is usually to control another person’s behavior.2  Severe verbal discipline takes yelling to a new level and is more harmful. It may include swearing, cursing, name-calling, or insulting. This severe verbal discipline has been associated with conduct problems in children and adolescents. It may also lead to higher physical aggression, delinquency, and interpersonal problems.”

To read the entire article, please click here

Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification and see if it meets your academic and professional goals.  The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification in Anger Management.


Anger Management and Road Rage

Road rage can become a deadly encounter for many.  For many anger comes quick and when that anger affects the response behind a 2 ton vehicle with a simple brake or turn of the wheel, then drastic things can occur.  Many are killed in accidents due to road rage.  While driving or on the side of the road, fights and violent attacks can take place..  It is important to control anger behind the wheel and be considerate of other drivers.   Anger has no place when driving.  Anger Management can play a key role in helping individuals manage rage while driving.

Anger on the road can lead to fatal endings. Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification


It can take very little to offset someone into road rage.  How one turns, lack of turn signal, or illicit use of the horn can reciprocate an angry response.  It is important to be mindful of these things when driving and practice proper anger management skills.

The article, “Controlling Your Anger on the Roads” by Sarah Landrum looks closer at the dangers of road rage and how to avoid it.  She discusses various ways one can better channel their anger while driving.  She also lists how defensive driving can help put individuals in better situations so potential road rage does not emerge.  Aggressive driving is a primary culprit in road rage.   She states,

“Aggressive driving confrontations may unfortunately escalate to incidents of aggressive — or even deadly — attacks, and anyone can be the victim. Children, parents, school teachers, even celebrities — accounts of road rage fill the headlines daily and the victims span the spectrum. Of course, you can’t always control the acts of others. However, it’s important to monitor your own behavior. If you find yourself becoming frustrated by other drivers, it’s time to take a deep breath. Redirect your anger. Consider these tips for controlling your anger on the road.”

To read the entire article, please click here

Controlling Your Anger on the Roads. Sarah Landrum.  October 25th, 2016. PsychCentral


Road rage can be defined as aggressive or violent behavior stemming from a driver’s frustration. This frustration can be caused by many things, such as heavy traffic, bad drivers, or stressful life events. When this frustration boils over, it can lead to angry outbursts and dangerous driving behaviors. Road rage is a serious problem because it puts everyone on the road at risk.  There are four primary types of road rage: verbal aggression, physical aggression, vehicle aggression, and indicators of aggression. Verbal aggression includes yelling, swearing, or making obscene gestures. Physical aggression involves any type of physical contact, such as pushing, shoving, hitting, or kicking. Vehicle aggression encompasses any dangerous driving behaviors, such as tailgating, cutting off other drivers, or braking suddenly.

Road rage is a very real phenomenon in the United States. According to a study by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 66% of fatal car crashes involve some form of aggressive driving. This figure has been on the rise in recent years, and shows no signs of abating.  it is generally accepted that road rage is more common in urban areas than rural areas. This is likely due to the increased traffic congestion and stress that is associated with living in a city. Additionally, road rage is more likely to occur during rush hour traffic or when drivers are running late.

Reasons for Road Rage

There are a number of reasons that can contribute to road rage. One reason is the anonymity of being in a car. When people are driving, they can be more aggressive because they feel anonymous and removed from the consequences of their actions. Another reason is stress. People who are already stressed out are more likely to lash out when something else happens that adds to their stress, such as another driver cutting them off in traffic.  When people are already running late or feeling stressed, even a small delay can be enough to trigger an angry response.
Another reason for road rage is a sense of competition or territoriality on the road. Some people see driving as a test of skill and feel like they have to prove themselves every time they get behind the wheel.

Others feel the need to police the road and will attempt to correct or punish a driver who goes to fast, tries to pass or misuses a signal.  Lack of proper road etiquette can set others off against each other.  It is hence important to remember to follow the rules of the road, avoid competing, stop policing and mind one’s own business with good and safe defensive driving.  No one knows what another drive is capable of or willing to do to another driver.

Anger Management and Road Rage

Anger management refers to the process of recognizing and regulating one’s emotions, in order to prevent them from boiling over into negative behaviours, such as road rage.  Anger management prevents road rage by teaching people how to control their emotions. When people are angry, they may lash out and cause accidents. By learning how to control their anger, they can prevent road rage from happening.


Whatever may be bothering oneself, it is not worth road rage or the violence that can pursue it.  It is important to avoid being a victim of road rage via good defensive driving but it is also equally important not to become the source of it through aggressive driving or verbal insults.  Anger Management is key in preventing road rage and if someone has an anger issue, that person should then seek proper professional help to control one’ temper, especially while driving.

If you feel you have rage on the road, then please consider taking steps to prevent future road rage.  Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification and see if it matches your academic and professional goals.  The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification in Anger Management.

Additional Resources

“What Causes Road Rage?”. Kaja Perina. June 10th, 2021.  Psychology Today. Access here

“Road Rage: How To Deal With It”. DMV.  Access here

“How to Manage Feelings of Road Rage”. Elizabeth Scott. January 19th, 2021. Verywellmind. Access here

“Measuring road rage: development of the Propensity for Angry Driving Scale”. Jason PDePasquale, Journal of Safety Research Volume 32, Issue 1, March 2001, Pages 1-16. Access here


Anger Management Consulting Certification Blog on Anger and Men

Anger can take different forms in different genders.  Men are quite different than women and tend to express anger quite differently.  Men sometimes are more aggressive as well and when compounded with anger can turn to violence. While this does not say every individual reacts to anger based on race, there are enough studies to show that most men are more outward in expressing their anger.  It is important to understand how one expresses anger and why. Obviously there are more than just one’s gender to explain why some individuals are more angry than others, but gender does play a small part in understanding.  Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification

How does anger manifest differently in men? Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification


The article, “Understanding Anger in Men” by Matthew Boland looks closer at the nature of anger and its expression within the male gender.  He states,

“Men are often thought of as angrier than women but multiple studies (like this and this) have shown that’s not the case. Men are, on average, more likely to express anger through outward aggression, which could partially explain why men are often perceived as angrier than women. Society generally views anger expressed by men as more socially acceptable than anger expressed by women. Anger causes short-term physiological changes in the body, which can contribute to other health problems over time for men.”

To read the entire article, please click here

Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification and see if it matches your academic and professional goals. The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification in Anger Management Training.


Anger Management Consulting Certification Blog on Dealing with Difficult People

Anger sometimes is justified but not necessarily needed all the time.   Difficult and rude individuals are everywhere in society and test the sane and good natured individuals.   Patience can wear thin when dealing with a difficult person at the office, at home, or on the road.  It is critical to keep your cool but as one knows, it does not always end that way.  Sometimes, the person goes way past acceptable behavior or you are already over loaded with stress and this person is the proverbial “straw” that breaks the camel’s back.  It is still nonetheless important to limit outbursts from becoming dangerous or illegal.

Of course, learning Anger Management techniques to deal with difficult people and maintain emotional control is key.  There are a few key ideas to consider below that may help one deal better with difficult people and remain calm.

Dealing with difficult people is well…difficult. Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification and see if it meets your goals


Of course the first and foremost point is it is not worth it.  Getting emotionally upset is not healthy all the time.  Controlling one’s temper and anger is key to a healthy life but also a legal trouble free life.   Road rage, office fights, jail time and other misfortunes are merely the tip of the ice burg.   So it is not worth it when a difficult person causes issues.

Anger Management also teaches one to try to understand their point of view.  Attribution error looks at the issue at hand and tries to understand one’s annoying behavior.  Sometimes, a person may be facing his or her own stress or dealing with multiple stressors or even a death in one’s family.  It may be nice to sometimes give someone a little “slack”.

Sometimes difficult people also just wish to be heard.  Individuals who are unable to vent, or able to be heard or validated are more angry.  When dealing with an angry person in business or customer support, sometimes, merely listening can be key.  It can also help to validate or acknowledge a difficult person’s frustration.  This does not mean one must agree, but it does mean one can pick out something of importance to the person and acknowledge it.  It can also be merely through a comment as “I can see how that would be frustrating to you”. This can help reset the angry or difficult person.  Diffusing the argument through listening, acknowledgement and agreement on some points can help.

Another angle to review is the type of person you are dealing with.  While one cannot always do a psychological analysis on a stranger or is qualified to do so, one can sometimes look for various traits.  For difficult individuals that one knows, then this is far easier but knowing the type of person one is dealing with can really help.  Is the person OCD, is the person ADHD, is the person a Type A personality or is the person Clinically Depressed?  Some individuals may have defiant issues where they look to argue to merely argue.  They thrive for the fight itself.  Others may be selfish and will only see their own views and border narcissism or other personality disorders.  Others may be sociopaths and not care about anyone but themselves.  How one navigates the waters with difficult individuals can depend on the personality itself.

When dealing with these individuals, one should accept the reality of what one is dealing with.  You cannot change a person’s personality but you can cope with it.  You can with long term relationships with people or a simple conversation admit that this person is difficult and for whatever reason, apply a plan to deal with it without allowing yourself to become angry.  In doing so, one should look for conclusions and solutions to help end the problem.  Offer solutions and remain fact driven.  Do not offer opinions but remain steadfast with facts.  Delusional individuals may wish to irritate and offer bogus solutions or conspiracies, but one should avoid name calling or lowering oneself to their level.  If one dismisses foolishness and remains entailed with only the facts, then one can possibly put the conversation on track.  This is especially true with customer service or in business.  Only offer what is possible and remain fact driven.   Again, we can see this in debates, or congressional hearings.  The party that remains calm and fact orientated despite the digs and ad hominem argumentation will eventually emerge unscathed.

How do you deal with difficult people? Please also review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification


Also during tense exchanges, it is good to not match intensity of emotion.  Individuals who are screaming, only become louder when one screams back.  It is best to remain calm and collective and choose words wisely and calmly.   The lack of emotional energy from your side can help alleviate the stress and ease the mood.

Of course, there are two other options to consider that we have not even considered.  First, is the problem you?  Are you the difficult person?  Second, if not, and the person continues to be emotional and illogical, simply walk away from the issue.   This can be done politely and professionally and does not necessarily involve a climatic dig and storming off moment or a click of the phone.  Everything can be done with proper procedure and good manners.  There are plenty of ways to end conversations that are fruitless with class and dignity.

If you would like to learn more about dealing with emotion and anger, then please review AIHCP’s Anger Management Consulting Certification and see if it meets your academic and professional goals.  The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification as an Anger Management Consultant.

Also please review the article, “How to Deal With Difficult People Without Losing Your Cool” by Adam Bulger.  Please click here