The Problem Management Helping Model in Grief and Counseling

Helping individuals from one point of need to the final point of self resilience and healing is the process of counseling itself, however, many times counselors helping others with grief, issues of loss, or problems in life become loss in the process.  Maintaining a sense of direction when helping is key.  While there is a partnership in the counseling relationship, the counselor still nonetheless is the guider within the partnership.  The counselor directs the process and guides it to its eventual end point.   Whatever counseling philosophy or model one incorporates, it is still essential to have a template of how to help resolve a particular issue.  Problem Management is a key arrow and guiding modality to help counselors and clients stay on track and have a sense of direction.  It is essentially the compass or navigation control in the counseling session.  Good counselors understand its use and properly utilize it during counseling.  In this short blog, we will review its essential nature in counseling and how to properly incorporate it with a client.

Counselors help clients identify problems, offer solutions, and incorporate goals and ways to achieve them


Problem Management: Four Questions

When a client attends counseling, he/she is looking for guidance in a particular struggle.  Whether it is more complex trauma or loss, or instead a simpler issue revolving around a decision to find a job or not, clients are seeking guidance.  While the clients ultimately determine the outcome, they seek guidance with options and how to accomplish a given thing.  Counselors can help guide clients through Problem Management and its four questions.  The process involves the current picture, preferred picture, a way forward and action itself.

First, the counselor will ask questions about the current problem and current picture..  According to Egan, one should ask a client, what his/her issues or concerns pertain to (2019, p. 45)?   Within this first stage of helping the client, the counselor can help the client discover and identify the issue.  The first task involves the story itself.  What is the primary problem and main concerns (Egan, 2019, p. 48)?  When discussing the story, the counselor should help the client possibly see new perspectives to the problem and what may be really going on beyond the client’s initial story.  Finally, the counselor should be able to direct the client to the right story and what  he/she should be working on.  This process leads to first listening, but then helping the client identify beyond his/her perceptions and find the right story and the keys surrounding it (Egan, 2019, p. 48).  For example, a person who is obese may discuss multiple issues revolving around self image and poor diet/health.  Discussing the primary problem and identifying perceptions of self image and directing the person to the core of the problem is important.  Leading the client to the right story and issue sometimes takes time, but is essential.

After helping the client identify the right issue at hand, the counselor needs to help the client look beyond the current picture and propose a preferred picture.  The primary question should include what does a better picture look like? Within this phase, according to Egan, the counselor helps the client determine problem managing outcomes and set goals (2019, p. 48).   What are the possibilities for a better outcome entail?  What goals and outcomes are truly the most critical and important?  Finally, what is the client willing to do to achieve these outcomes (2019, p.48). Ultimately, these better outcomes and preferred pictures involve effort.  In this phase, again the example of the obese client will see a preferred picture of weight loss, better health and higher self esteem.

Following the preferred picture, the counselor looks to guide the client forward.  The counseling sessions look to help the person move forward with a plan.  The client and counselor should brain storm with possible ideas and strategies to resolve a particular issue.  The counselor will help narrow down the best fit strategies for the particular client and then help the client organize a way to accomplish these goals (Egan, 2019, P. 48).  In the case and example of the obese client, the counselor will discuss diet and exercise strategies and then see which particular strategies fit best with the client’s work and life schedule.  The counselor will then help coordinate first steps and possible times to put things into action.

These three phases of identifying problems, seeking better outcomes and making plans all lead to a call to action.  How well will this call to action being implemented depends on many subjective factors within the client.

Clients and Change

Human beings, despite perfect plans, usually fail to accomplish goals the first time. This requires patient and flexibility by the counselor to help facilitate lasting change and resiliency within the client

Counselors can only direct, they cannot force a client to change.  Hence it is important to help facilitate change but not to expect perfection.  Change takes time.  Some clients may be more resilient to let downs, or more focused in accomplishing a task.   It is important to expect a back and forth wavering between stages.  Clients when they finally become aware of a problem enter into various phases to push forward in change.  According to Egan, individuals looking for change after initial awareness of a problem, will still waver, until the awareness leads to a heightened level (2019, p. 56). This leads to preliminary actions and a search for remedies.  Within this, individuals estimate costs and weigh those costs of a change.  They soon turn to more rational decision that is not only rational but tied to emotional change.  This leads to serious action.  However, these actions still require maintenance and the reality that relapse can occur (Egan, 2019, p.57-58).

It is the counselors job to help nurture positive change and guide clients through pitfalls.  Those facing addiction issues, or in our example, one facing weight loss challenges, will wish to change but may sometimes not be emotionally tied to the rational decision enough to take the serious action.  Others may do well for a few months and not be able to maintain what is demanded, or worst, yet relapse into addiction, or fall off their diet.  Counselors are there to help guide in those cases and foster resilience.  This may involve returning to the Problem Management model at an earlier stage to again find grounding and direction.

This is why counselors must ever remain flexible in their approach.  Somethings may work for one client but not another.  Counselors need to constantly “mine” various approaches or counseling philosophies that will help a particular client (Egan, 2019, p. 58).   The counselor then organizes what works best, evaluates it and incorporates it into the various phases of the Problem Management Model (2019, p, 58-59)

Pitfalls to Avoid in Problem Management

When helping clients identify issues, outcomes and plans of action, there are some pitfalls that counselors need to avoid.  Counselors need to avoid a lack of plan in their work.  Some helpers go session by session without a uniform plan set into play.  Others on the contrary attempt to implement to many plans at once.  While there are many good models, not all models fit for a particular person, so each model and stage of helping, needs to be tailored to the individual client.  Avoiding rigidness and being flexible in approach is key with an understanding that one can go back and forth between stages.  It is also important to include the client in the process.  Since counseling is a partnership, then it is essential to share the helping models with the client.  This is an element of psycho-educational healing.  A client who is part of the process understands the points of reference and can better track oneself in the healing and change process (Egan, 2019, p. 60-61).  Finally, while important as it is to utilize flexibility, a good counselor can recognize lack of progress on part of the client and when to help the client push forward (Egan, 2019, p52).

Hence the process while simple in theory is more difficult when people become involved.  People are complex and no one person is the same.  This leads to the need of flexibility, testing and feedback, and trying other things within the parameters of the Problem Management model.  Some clients may process the issue quicker, others may take longer.  Some my engage in a certain stage a different way than another, while others will regress or progress.   This is why counseling while a science is also an art.  The individual talents of a counselor go well beyond the models and theories but also helping others implement what needs to be done through a variety of skills that involve evaluation and guidance.


It is essential to have a plan.  Counseling is structured while also flexible.  It has a purpose and a plan to reach a goal.  The flexibility is how to reach that goal not the goal itself.  Problem Management helps the counseling relationship stay structured in regards to the issue.  It helps identify the issue, state the better outcome and help give the tools and plans to accomplish it.  Counselors need to work their clients to the desired change but while doing so understand the nature of change within the human person and the need to keep trying when results do not appear.  The counselor not only guides the client to facilitate positive change but also helps the client get up when the client falls.

Please also review AIHCP’s numerous mental health programs, including its Grief Counseling and Christian Counseling Certification Programs


Please also review AIHCP’s Grief Counseling Certification as well as its Christian Counseling Program.  AIHCP also offers Spiritual Counseling, Stress Management, Crisis Intervention and Anger Management programs to help train professionals in facilitating positive changes in clients.  Utilization of a Problem Management paradigm is essential in all of these models.  AIHCP’s programs are all independent study and online.


Egan, G & Reese, R. (2019). “The Skilled Helper: A Problem Management and Opportunity-Development Approach to Helping” (11th Ed.) Cengage.

Additional Resources

“Problem-Solving Models: What They Are and How To Use Them”. (2023). Indeed Editorial Staff. Indeed.  Access here

Cuncic, A. (2024). “What Is Problem-Solving Therapy?”. Very Well Mind.  Access here

Antonatos, L. (2023). “Problem-Solving Therapy: How It Works & What to Expect”. Choosing Therapy.  Access here






Case Management and Wound Management of Patients

The management of wounds is a critical aspect of healthcare that requires a comprehensive approach involving multiple disciplines and the latest in care techniques. This article explores the various dimensions of wound care management, from the basics of treatment to the collaborative efforts needed to optimize healing and patient involvement.

Key Takeaways

Case Managers play a big role in wound management and ensuring the patient receives the proper follow up and care


Case Managers can help coordinate healthcare teams and ensure proper upkeep and follow up care is given to the patient’s wound.

  • Understanding the fundamentals of wound care is essential for effective management and resource optimization.
  • Interdisciplinary collaboration and the use of cutting-edge technology are key to improving healing rates and patient quality of life.
  • Regular training and the establishment of best practices are crucial for ensuring high-quality wound care.
  • Patient involvement and education in wound care can significantly enhance treatment outcomes and prevent complications.
  • Advancements in wound care research and technology continue to evolve, offering new opportunities for more effective treatments.

Overview of Basic Wound Care Management

Understanding the Fundamentals

Basic wound care management is essential for effective patient recovery and prevention of complications. Proper understanding of wound healing processes—such as hemostasis, inflammation, and epithelialization—is crucial. This knowledge ensures that healthcare providers can apply the most appropriate and effective treatments.

Resource Utilization

Effective wound care management requires significant resources. It involves not only the direct care of wounds but also the strategic use of materials and personnel to optimize healing and minimize resource waste. Strategies include streamlining the supply chain for dressing materials and educating staff on the latest wound care techniques.

Improving Healing Rates

To enhance the healing rates of wounds, it is imperative to implement evidence-based practices. These include maintaining a clean and moist wound environment, using advanced dressings, and employing modern therapeutic techniques. Regular monitoring and timely interventions can significantly improve outcomes and reduce the duration of patient recovery.

Collaborative Approaches in Wound Management

Case Managers help coordinate healthcare teams in providing the best care for the wound of the patient.

Interdisciplinary Team Roles

In effective wound management, the collaboration between various healthcare professionals is crucial. The nursing team, treating medical team, and specialists such as stomal therapists and plastic surgeons play pivotal roles. Each member contributes uniquely to the management and dressing selection, optimizing the healing process.

Referral Processes

Referrals are essential for specialized wound care. They should be streamlined through an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system to ensure timely and appropriate management. This process involves multiple healthcare departments, including Specialist Clinics and Allied Health teams.

Optimizing Dressing Selection

Selecting the right dressing is a critical decision that affects wound healing. It requires a thorough understanding of wound types and the available dressing technologies. The choice of dressing can significantly influence the healing rate and should be made collaboratively by the interdisciplinary team.

Healing Mechanisms in Wound Care

Primary Intention

Wound healing through primary intention involves the direct closure of the wound, typically through surgical means such as suturing or stapling. This method is most effective for clean, uninfected wounds with well-defined edges. The goal is to minimize scarring and reduce the risk of infection, promoting a quicker recovery.

Monitoring Progress

Effective wound management requires diligent monitoring to assess the healing process. Key indicators include the reduction of redness and swelling, the absence of infection, and the progression of tissue regeneration. Regular assessments help in adapting the treatment plan to enhance healing outcomes.

Adapting Care Plans

Adapting care plans to individual needs is crucial for optimal healing. Factors such as the patient’s nutritional status, underlying health conditions, and mobility affect wound healing. Tailored interventions, considering these intrinsic and systemic factors, are essential for effective wound management.

Implementing Wound Assessment Technology

Role in Pediatric Care

The implementation of wound assessment technology plays a crucial role in pediatric care, enhancing the accuracy and efficiency of treatments. These technologies, particularly portable imaging devices, allow for precise measurements and monitoring of wound healing, which is vital in the sensitive and varying physiology of children.

Guidelines and Aims

Wound assessment technology aims to standardize the evaluation process across different healthcare settings. Guidelines focus on ensuring consistent and accurate measurements, which are critical for effective treatment planning and outcome prediction.

Multidisciplinary Assessment

Incorporating technology into wound care facilitates a multidisciplinary approach, involving various healthcare professionals. This integration ensures comprehensive care, from initial assessment to the final stages of healing, leveraging the expertise of each team member.

Defining Key Terms in Wound Care

Common Definitions

In the realm of wound care, understanding the terminology is crucial for effective communication and treatment planning. Key terms include ‘acute wound’, ‘chronic wound’, ‘debridement’, and ‘exudate’ among others. These terms help in categorizing and treating wounds based on their nature and severity.

Impact of Comorbidities

Comorbidities significantly affect wound healing processes. Conditions such as diabetes and vascular diseases can impede blood flow, thus delaying wound healing. It’s essential to consider these factors when planning treatment to ensure optimal care.

Preventive Measures

Preventive strategies in wound care are vital to reduce the incidence of wounds, especially in at-risk populations. These include regular inspections, maintaining skin moisture, and proper nutrition. Implementing these measures can significantly decrease the risk of wound development and complications.

Assessing Causes of Wounds

Identifying Damage

Identifying the cause and extent of damage is crucial for effective wound management. Early and accurate assessment helps in tailoring the treatment to the specific needs of the wound, thereby enhancing the healing process. Factors to consider include the size, depth, and the presence of any foreign bodies or underlying tissue damage.

Control Measures

Control measures are essential to prevent the exacerbation of the wound. These include maintaining a stable temperature and moisture balance, ensuring adequate oxygenation, and managing any infection present. It is also important to address any intrinsic factors such as nutrition and underlying chronic diseases that may affect wound healing.

Predicting Treatment Outcomes

Predicting treatment outcomes involves understanding the complexities of wound healing and the patient’s overall health status. This includes monitoring the wound’s response to treatment and making necessary adjustments to care plans. Effective prediction helps in setting realistic expectations and improving patient outcomes.

Note: Effective wound assessment and management require a comprehensive understanding of both the wound and the patient’s overall health condition.

Establishing Best Practices Internally

Training Staff

Ensuring that all healthcare providers are well-trained in the latest wound care techniques is crucial. Comprehensive education programs should be established, focusing on both theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Workshops and continuous training sessions can help in maintaining high standards of care.

Partnering with Specialists

Collaboration with specialists in wound care enhances the overall quality of care provided to patients. Establishing partnerships with experts can bring in advanced insights and techniques, thus improving patient outcomes.

Ensuring Proper Techniques

Adopting and adhering to evidence-based practices is essential for consistent patient care. Regular audits and feedback mechanisms should be implemented to ensure that the care provided meets the highest standards. The use of innovative technologies, such as portable wound assessment devices, can aid in early detection and management of wound conditions, thus enhancing the effectiveness of treatments.

Role of Post-Acute Professionals

Case Managers work with other teams to ensure proper wound management is applied to patients

Case Management plays a key role in record keeping and assessment of healing.

Improving Patient Quality of Life

Post-acute professionals are pivotal in enhancing patient outcomes by teaching management skills that foster independence and self-care. Their role extends to ensuring that patients are well-equipped with the necessary knowledge and tools to manage their conditions effectively, which significantly contributes to improved quality of life and reduced complications.

Teaching Management Skills

The education imparted by these professionals is crucial for patient empowerment. By providing comprehensive training and resources, they help patients understand their treatment protocols, which aids in faster recovery and minimizes the risk of rehospitalization.

Recognizing Complications Early

Early detection of complications is vital in post-acute care. Through regular monitoring and assessments, post-acute professionals can swiftly intervene, preventing the escalation of potential issues. This proactive approach not only saves costs but also enhances the overall healing process.

Challenges in Wound Care Management

Dealing with Complications

In the realm of wound care, complications can arise from a variety of sources, including infections, delayed healing, and reactions to treatment methods. Effective management of these complications is crucial to prevent prolonged recovery times and increased healthcare costs. Strategies to address these issues include rigorous monitoring, timely intervention, and personalized care plans based on individual patient needs.

Generalized Treatment Risks

The application of generalized treatment protocols to all patients can lead to suboptimal outcomes. Each wound and patient is unique, and treatments must be tailored to address specific conditions and comorbidities. This approach helps in minimizing risks associated with inappropriate treatment applications and enhances the overall effectiveness of wound care strategies.

Implementing New Methods

Introducing new wound care techniques and products into clinical practice involves challenges related to acceptance, training, and evaluation of effectiveness. It is essential to ensure that these new methods are implemented with careful oversight to avoid potential setbacks. Continuous education and training for healthcare providers are vital to keep up with advancements and to ensure the safe integration of innovative treatments into standard care practices.

Advancements in Wound Care Techniques

Research and Development

The field of wound care is rapidly evolving with significant investments in research and development. Innovations such as xenogeneic tissue scaffolds and recombinant growth factors are transforming patient outcomes. These advancements are crucial for enhancing the efficacy of wound treatments and reducing recovery times.

Updating Clinical Practices

As new technologies and treatments emerge, updating clinical practices is essential. This includes integrating novel methods like endoscopic subfascial ligation and endovascular arterial repair techniques into standard care protocols to ensure that all healthcare providers are up-to-date with the latest in wound care management.

Cooperation with Specialized Facilities

To maximize the benefits of new wound care technologies, cooperation with specialized facilities is vital. These collaborations help in refining techniques such as negative pressure wound therapy and optimizing the use of advanced dressings and devices. By working together, healthcare providers can leverage collective expertise to improve patient care and outcomes.

Patient Involvement in Wound Care

Nurse-Patient educators can play a key role in helping patients take a big step in self care of their wounds

Self-Management Education

Empowering patients through education is crucial for effective wound care management. Providing patients with the knowledge and skills to manage their wounds can lead to improved outcomes and a greater sense of control over their health. Educational sessions should cover topics such as proper wound cleaning, the importance of maintaining a clean environment, and recognizing signs of infection.

Tools for Effective Care

To support patients in their self-management, various tools and resources should be made available. These include instructional guides, videos, and wound care kits. Ensuring that patients and caregivers know the correct technique to use, these materials should be made available as options. Regular updates and easy access to these resources can significantly enhance patient autonomy and treatment effectiveness.

Benefits of Active Participation

Active participation in wound care not only improves healing rates but also enhances the patient’s quality of life. When patients are involved in their care, they are more likely to adhere to treatment plans and engage in preventive measures. This involvement can also lead to quicker recognition of complications, which is crucial for timely intervention and improved outcomes.

Resource Management in Wound Care

Reducing Hospital Stays

Effective resource management in wound care is crucial for reducing hospital stays. By optimizing wound care protocols and streamlining processes, healthcare facilities can minimize the duration of inpatient care required for wound management. This not only frees up hospital resources but also enhances patient comfort and recovery speed.

Preventing Infections

Preventing infections is a pivotal aspect of resource management in wound care. Implementing stringent sterilization and hygiene practices can significantly reduce the incidence of wound-related infections, thereby conserving resources and improving patient outcomes.

Cost-Effective Strategies

To ensure sustainability in wound care, adopting cost-effective strategies is essential. This involves evaluating and selecting appropriate wound care products and technologies that offer the best value for money. Additionally, training healthcare providers on efficient resource utilization can lead to substantial cost savings and improved care quality.

By focusing on efficient resource management, healthcare facilities can enhance the overall effectiveness of wound care, leading to better patient outcomes and reduced costs.


Please review AIHCP’s Case Management Program as well as its Nurse Patient Educator Program and see if they meet your academic and professional goals

In conclusion, effective case and wound management of patients is a multifaceted endeavor that requires a collaborative and systematic approach. It is essential to integrate the latest research, technology, and best practices to optimize wound healing and patient outcomes. By fostering cooperation among healthcare professionals and ensuring they are well-informed and equipped, we can enhance the quality of care provided to patients. Additionally, involving patients in their own care and educating them on proper wound management techniques can significantly reduce complications and improve healing rates. Ultimately, a comprehensive and evidence-based approach to wound care management not only benefits individual patient health but also contributes to the overall efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare facilities.

Please also review AIHCP’s Case Management Certification and see if it meets your academic and professional goals.  The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a Case Management Certification

To learn more about AIHCP’s Nurse Patient Educator Certification then please also review the program and see if it meets your academic and professional goals.


Frequently Asked Questions

What is primary intention in wound healing?

Primary intention refers to a method of wound healing where the wound edges can be pulled together, such as in a surgical incision, using sutures, staples, or steristrips.

How can resource utilization improve basic wound care management?

Effective resource utilization in wound care can reduce follow-up visits and lengthy hospital stays due to infections, optimizing the overall healthcare facility’s operations.

What role do post-acute professionals play in wound care?

Post-acute professionals improve patient quality of life by teaching proper wound care management skills, helping in quicker recognition of complications, and enhancing treatment outcomes.

What is the aim of implementing wound assessment technology in pediatric care?

The aim is to provide guidelines for assessing and managing wounds in pediatric patients, ensuring optimal healing through ongoing multidisciplinary assessments and interventions.

How does understanding comorbidities impact wound care management?

Knowing the impact of comorbidities, such as diabetes, on wound healing helps providers avoid complications and improve healing speeds by tailoring treatments to individual needs.

What are the risks associated with generalized wound care treatment?

Generalized treatment can lead to assumptions and risks, necessitating careful implementation of new methods and oversight to avoid complications.

How does assessing the cause of wounds aid in management?

By identifying the cause and extent of damage, providers can apply targeted control measures and predict treatment outcomes more accurately.

What are the benefits of involving patients in wound care?

Involving patients in their wound care through education and tools empowers them, leading to active participation and potentially better healing outcomes.

Additional Resources

Hogan, T. (1997).  “Case management in a wound care program”.  1997 Jan-Feb;2(1):2-13; quiz 14-5. National Library of Medicine.  Access here

Bowers, S & Franco, E. (2020). “Chronic Wounds: Evaluation and Management”. Am Fam Physician. 2020;101(3):159-166. American Family Physician.  Access here

“Creating a Plan of Care for Wound Management” (2022). Wound Source.  Access here

Annesley, S. (2019). “Current thinking on caring for patients with a wound: a practical approach”. British Journal of Nursing.  Access here

Stages of Addiction Video

Addiction does not happen overnight.  One who becomes addicted goes through a variety of phases that usually begins due to poor coping via escapism or through experimentation.  Some individuals may not become addicted, others may have genetic predisposition.  Others may be chemically addicted while others may be behaviorally addicted.  There are many different aspects.  This video looks at the most common stages of addiction and how to fight it.

Addiction has numerous stages. Please also review AIHCP’s Substance Abuse Practitioner Program

Please also review AIHCP’s Substance Abuse Practitioner Program and see if it meets your academic and professional goals.  The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification










Please review the video below

Attending Skills in Counseling: Listening and Observing

Attending skills and attending the client are the initial phases of patient interaction with a counselor.  It involves how well the counselor attends the client through listening, observing and feedback skills.  These basic skills set the table for productive counseling.

Attending to the client involves listening and observing skills that lead to better feedback. Please also review AIHCP’s Grief Counseling Certification as well as its Christian Counseling Certification

The fundamental foundation in conversation and communication is listening.  When others try to interrupt or speak over each other, the purpose of communication is crippled.  Listening is a key communication skill that helps one understand the other half of the conversation.  It allows one to learn about the other person and be able to make productive comments to the process of the conversation.  When listening fails, communication fails.  No wonder then, counselors, whether clinical or pastoral, whether in grief, spiritual or general counseling fields need to develop this skill in counseling.

When working with someone, whether in basic clinical interviewing where information is collected, or in counseling itself, where one hopes to help someone find healing or progress in life, listening is a key ingredient.  When counselors fail to listen properly, the counseling process itself fails.  Clients sense when their issues are addressed or if the counselor cares about what they are telling them.  Hence, listening and giving good feedback is key not only for providing help but also creating a relationship between counselor and client.  A counselor who listens is not only better able to help the client but is also better able to give the client a sense of meaning.  Through listening, the client feels someone cares about his/her problem and is willing to listen and offer productive advice and guidance in the process.





The Counselor and Client Relationship

The counselor and client relationship is key.  When the counselor makes him/herself available to the client, he/she invites the client into a professional and therapeutic relationship. Through this communication, a team evolves that works together for the benefit of the client.  In essence it becomes an alliance (Egan, 2019, p. 67).  Any good alliance is built upon good communication and listening.  The counselor builds the relationship first via listening.  Through listening, communication begins, through communication, trust emerges, and through trust, a relationship that can heal begins.

The Art of Attending

Attending a client involves both listening and also observing.  When attending to a client, the counselor reduces talk time and provides clients with the timeframe to speak (Ivey, 2018, p. 75).   Conducive to this is how a counselor attends to the client from four physical aspects.  These attending aspects include visual contact, vocal qualities, verbal tracking and body/facial expressions (Ivey, 2018, p. 75).  In regards to eye contact, when someone looks away, it denotes for many, a sign of disrespect or lack of interest.  Hence good visual contact involves eye contact.  This does not necessarily mean awkward staring, but it does denote eye contact during conversation.  This promotes the sense that one is genuinely interested in the story of the client and promotes the process of counseling itself.  Vocal qualities also play a key role in the attending art.  Tones and speech rate can be interpreted by the client as positive or negative based on the counselor’s speech.  A counselor who seems upset via a tone, can quickly scare away a client or embarrass a client from further discussion.  A calm and sensitive tone is essential to provide security to the client while his/her story is being told.  While listening it is also essential to track the conversation.  It is important to keep the client tied to the initiated topic (Ivey, 2018, p. 75).   Good listening helps keep the conversation in a good and purposeful direction.  Finally, one’s body language and facial expressions can play a key role in attending.  An awkward or angry face, or turning away from a person can have the same negative effects as the tone of one’s voice.   Egan recommends facing the person squarely, adopting an open posture and sometimes leaning forward as needed during the conversation (2018, p. 101).   Instead of folding one’s arms, or shifting and moving, one can create a safe sense of being for the client during the narrative.  Bear in mind also cultural aspects.  Some individuals may be from a different and diverse culture that utilizes different ways of expressing certain emotions.  This can lead to different postures or emotional ways of expression.  It is important to be aware of other cultures and their views and to also be aware of oneself and how one’s own appearance, race, faith or culture can affect the client one is attending and trying to help.

Dialogue and Listening

Empathetic listening is an important skill that lets the client know his/her story matters

A good conversation involves taking turns during it.  It involves connecting and mutually influencing each other (Egan, 2018, p. 100).  It not only a monologue but a shared story that each party invests in.  Good listening skills help the counselor make the most of the narrative but some types of listening miss the point.  Egan points out that partial listening is one type of listening that counselors need to avoid.  When counselors only partially listen, they only skim the surface.  They pick up parts of the conversation and miss others.  When questioned by the client, their response is less complete and can cause problems with the client (2018, p. 107).  Another poor listening skill, according to Egan, is an audio-recording style of listening, where the counselor simply parrots what the client has expressed.  In this case, the paraphrase adds no insight or questioning but merely repeats.  Sometimes, repeating something has power and can be utilized but if paraphrasing is utilized in parrot form consistently, then it only mirrors and gives no true insight.  Counselors need to listen to the client’s experiences, thoughts, behaviors and feelings and better respond to those things with insight (Egan, 2018, p. 108).  This insight should not be judgmental, but should be slowly integrated into the responses.  The response then should not merely always paraphrase or repeat, but the listening should produce a paraphrase that not only restates but also probes deeper, but without judgment or necessarily value based accusations.  The key is to help the client find the answer because ultimately the client is in the driver seat.  Finally, Egan points out that another form of bad listening involves rehearsing.  Many novice counselors are looking for the perfect answer or solution, or even the proper response.  During this, counselors can become dominated during listening as to what their response will be instead of what the client is discussing (2018, p. 107). Effective helpers  do not stop listening to derive a solution but continue to listen instead of preparing what they will say next.

Other Distortions in Listening

Egan points out a few other ways distortions to listening that can occur even to counselors who are fully paying attention.  Egan states that it near impossible to listen to someone in a completely unbiased way but counselors need to try their very best to filter these assumptions (2018, p. 125).  A counselor who is a white male may use filters from his own life that could distort cultural differences from a black female.  This bias could side track both parties.  Hence it is critical to remove types of subconscious bias when listening to the narrative of a person from a different race, culture, or faith.   In addition, during listening, it is important to avoid evaluative listening.  Egan defines evaluative listening as judgmental listening.  It involves seeing statements as good or bad, or right or wrong or acceptable or unacceptable (2018, p. 126).  Clients need to be first understood before productive change is introduced.   Another type of distortion involves stereotyping a client based on diagnosis.  This type of listening involves labeling the individual.  While diagnosis is important, when focusing solely on diagnosis of the individual, the counselor puts the client in a box.   Egan states the counselor can be correct in diagnosis but still lose the person (2018, p. 127).   Finally, it is important for counselors not to fall victim to sympathetic listening, where they become solely captivated and emotional about the client’s situation while missing the objective facts.  Sometimes too much sympathy can limit effective helping (Egan, 2018, p. 127).

Importance of Empathy and Finding Missing Cues

Counselors can discover various insights into a client through various physical cues

Empathy is crucial in human relationships. An empathetic person is able to understand the other person emotionally and feel what it may be like to experience certain things.  Empathetic listening allows the counselor to take a sincere and honest interest in the client but still remain objective. Carl Rogers, author of the Humanistic Approach in counseling, emphasized the importance of acute empathy and the utilization of it throughout the discussion.  Empathetic listening according to Ivey can be subtractive, basic or additive.   When subtractive, the counselor gives less back in response and the response is sometimes distortive and hence ineffective.  When the empathy is basic, it is an accurate feedback.  One needs to avoid completely audio-repeating but it sufficient to help the client.  Additive empathy is the best because it reframes but also may include past statements or include additional information to produce positive change (Ivey, 2018. p. 67).  Again, these rephrases, summaries or reflections are not meant to be commands but are used to guide.  They are not meant to impose judgment or value either, but awaken the client to other views or self actualizations.

Counselors have a wide variety of ways to respond through their listening and observing skills, some may include generalizing or summarizing, paraphrasing or reflecting on various issues.  Regardless, they need to be at least additive or basic in empathy.  Summarizing is a broad basic account of the dialogue.  Paraphrasing is more acute but it can be basic or additive.  Reflective is very additive in nature but connects the dialogue to self and offers insight and questions on the statement.

Empathetic listening is key in helping clients and is the basis for a client-based therapy (Egan, 2018, p. 67).  Through empathetic listening, one can become more attune to verbal and non-verbal cues that can reveal issues surrounding the story.   Counselors should watch for tone of voice in responses, facial expressions or body movements during the conversation.  How a client speaks or responds to a question can be a key clue (Egan, 2018, p.116).  Ivey recommends mirroring sometimes the client.  When movements do not clearly match and shifts and jerks within the client appear, then this could be a sign of an issue (2018. p. 99).

As noted, counselors need to watch for changes in tone of speech or physical movements.  Good observing skills, in addition to good listening can help counselors discover other missing pieces of the puzzle. In regards to some verbal behaviors, Ivey emphasizes that counselors should carefully watch “I” statements or “other” statements.  Are these statements positive or negative regarding “I” or “other” (2018, p. 93).  Ivey also recommends looking for words such as “can” and “can’t”.  Some clients as well are more concrete in their speech, while others are more abstract.  During listening and observation, a counselor needs to identify this.  Abstract clients are excellent at self analysis and reflecting on an issue, but may struggle with concrete issues.  More concrete clients may be able to provide specifics, but be less able to see the point of views of others.  Both types have their strengths, but it is important for a counselor to identify which type of speech one is listening and observing (Ivey, 2018, p. 91).  During interviewing or counseling, a counselor may be able to find cues to the issue through various discrepancies throughout the clients story.  Ivey points out that contradictions may occur between statements, or between words and actions, or regarding goals. It is important for the counselor to identify these discrepancies and in a non-confrontational way expose them to the client (Ivey, 2018, p. 99).

In listening empathetically and avoiding bad and distortions of listening , one can better hear the client’s experiences, thoughts, behaviors and feelings and not miss various cues of other issues.



Proper attending of the client is key for good counseling. Please also review AIHCP’s Grief Counseling Certification

Attending a client involves good listening and observing with feedback that reflects this.  Counselors need to develop good listening skills for the betterment of their clients.  Listening forms the foundation for any relationship and it is important to avoid bad listening habits.  Counselors can better attend their clients through a patient-centered model that is empathetic and humanistic.   Neuro-science studies portray that when clients are properly listened to and given feedback that show thought and reflection corresponding with listening, then certain parts of the brain light up in positive ways (Ivey, 2018, p. 77).  Listening plays a key role in making a positive effect on one’s client.  It lets the client realize someone actually is listening and cares and is providing feedback to produce positive change.


If you would like to learn more about helping other people or would like to become certified in Grief Counseling or Christian Counseling, then please review AIHCP’s certifications in these fields.  The programs are open to both clinical and non-clinical counselors who would like to earn a certification in these fields and add to their existing practice.  The Grief Counseling and Christian Counseling programs are online and independent study and lead to a four year certification.

References and Additional Resources

Egan, G & Reese, R. (2018). “The Skilled Helper: A Problem-Management and Opportunity-Development Approach to Helping (11th)”. Cengage.

Ivey, A. et, al. (2018). “Intentional Interviewing and Counseling: Facilitating Client Development in a Multicultural Society (9th)” Cengage.

Sutton, J. (2021). “Defining the Counseling Process and Its Stages”. Positive Psychology.  Access here

“Reflecting Skills”. Counseling Education.  Access here

“7 Attending Skills”. Optimist Minds.  Access here


Holistic Nursing and Managing Sugar and Diabetes I/II

Holistic Nursing and Natural and Holistic Ways to manage high sugar

Managing sugar is a life style choice. Holistic Nurses and other healthcare professionals can help guide you through the process for better health with sugar related issues

Holistic nursing integrates various natural and holistic methods to manage high blood sugar effectively in diabetes management. It emphasizes the importance of treating the whole person by incorporating physical, mental, and emotional wellness into care strategies. This article explores how holistic nursing and natural remedies can be used to optimize blood sugar control and enhance overall health outcomes for individuals with diabetes. Please also review AIHCP’s Holistic Nursing Program


Key Takeaways

  • Holistic nursing addresses the root causes of diabetes by focusing on comprehensive lifestyle changes.
  • Natural remedies like herbs, dietary adjustments, and lifestyle interventions play a crucial role in blood sugar management.
  • Incorporating berberine with dietary and lifestyle changes can significantly improve blood sugar levels and overall diabetic health.
  • Regular exercise and stress management are essential for enhancing insulin sensitivity and controlling blood sugar.
  • Holistic approaches not only manage high blood sugar but also improve cardiovascular health, reduce inflammation, and enhance overall quality of life.

Understanding Holistic Nursing in Diabetes Management

Certified Holistic Nurses can help patients better control or prevent diabetes from taking over their lives. Please also review AIHCP’s Holistic and Integrative Health Care Specialist Program

Defining Holistic Nursing

Holistic nursing is an approach that integrates the whole person in the care process, including physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual well-being. This method is particularly effective in managing chronic conditions like diabetes, where multiple factors influence health outcomes.

The Role of Nurses in Holistic Care

Nurses play a crucial role in implementing holistic care strategies. They assess all aspects of a patient’s life and coordinate care plans that address both the medical and lifestyle needs of individuals with diabetes. Nurses are pivotal in educating patients about the importance of lifestyle changes alongside medication.

Benefits of a Holistic Approach

A holistic approach to diabetes management not only focuses on controlling blood sugar levels but also emphasizes improving overall health. This includes cardiovascular health, reducing inflammation, and enhancing the quality of life. By addressing the root causes and not just the symptoms, holistic care promotes long-term health benefits.

Natural Remedies for Blood Sugar Control

Herbs and Spices

Incorporating certain herbs and spices into the diet can be a potent way to manage blood sugar levels naturally. Some of the most effective include cinnamon, fenugreek, and ginseng. These herbs have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce blood glucose levels. For instance, cinnamon can mimic insulin and increase glucose transport into cells, while fenugreek seeds contain fibers and chemicals that slow down the digestion of carbohydrates and sugar.

Dietary Adjustments

Making dietary adjustments is crucial for controlling blood sugar. A focus on low-glycemic foods that do not spike blood sugar levels is beneficial. Incorporating a balanced diet rich in fiber, such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, helps in the slow release of glucose into the bloodstream, thereby maintaining steady blood sugar levels. Additionally, reducing intake of refined sugars and carbohydrates is advised.

Lifestyle Interventions

Adopting a healthy lifestyle is essential for effective blood sugar management. Regular physical activity helps increase insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake by the muscles. It is also important to maintain hydration and limit sedentary behavior by incorporating light activities throughout the day. Stress management through techniques like yoga and meditation can also play a significant role in controlling blood sugar levels.

The Impact of Berberine on Type 2 Diabetes

Berberine can play a key role in reducing sugar levels in the blood if taken regularly.

Berberine, a natural plant alkaloid, has garnered attention for its potential in managing type 2 diabetes, a prevalent chronic metabolic disorder. This section explores the multifaceted role of berberine in diabetes management, highlighting its mechanisms, clinical efficacy, and integration with lifestyle modifications.

Mechanisms of Action

Berberine’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels is primarily attributed to its glucose-dependent insulinotropic effect. This means it helps maintain blood glucose levels without significantly increasing the risk of hypoglycemia. Berberine might lower blood sugar levels, which is crucial for managing diabetes effectively. Additionally, its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties contribute to its overall health benefits, making it a comprehensive treatment option.

Clinical Studies and Results

Recent studies have demonstrated berberine’s effectiveness in improving glycemic control among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Here are some key findings:

  • Significant reduction in fasting blood sugar and postprandial blood sugar levels
  • Improvement in insulin sensitivity
  • Reduction in HbA1c levels, indicating better long-term glucose control

These results underscore berberine’s potential as a valuable addition to diabetes management strategies.

Integrating Berberine with Lifestyle Changes

Incorporating berberine into a holistic diabetes management plan involves more than just supplementation. It requires a coordinated approach that includes dietary adjustments, regular physical activity, and stress management. By integrating berberine with these lifestyle changes, individuals can enhance their overall health and better manage their diabetes.

Note: Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment, especially when combining supplements with other medications.

Exercise as a Pillar of Diabetes Management

Types of Beneficial Physical Activities

To control sugar or diabetes, one needs to develop a healthy life style that not only involves diet but also consistent exercise. Please also review AIHCP’s Holistic Nursing Program

Exercise is crucial in managing diabetes, particularly through aerobic activities like walking, bicycling, and dancing. Strength training also plays a significant role, as it helps improve insulin sensitivity and enhances blood sugar management. Activities such as push-ups, squats, and lunges are especially beneficial.

How Exercise Affects Blood Sugar

Exercise can immediately reduce blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes by increasing insulin sensitivity and the body’s ability to use glucose as energy. It is generally recommended to exercise about 30 minutes after a meal to maintain optimal blood sugar control.

Creating a Sustainable Exercise Routine

To create a sustainable exercise routine, it is essential to monitor blood sugar levels closely, especially since physical activity can cause these levels to drop. Incorporating a variety of exercises and gradually increasing the intensity can help maintain interest and effectiveness. Breaking up long periods of inactivity, like sitting at a computer, can also aid in blood sugar control.

Dietary Strategies for Managing High Blood Sugar

Foods to Include

Incorporating a variety of nutrient-dense foods is crucial for managing high blood sugar. Focus on including high-fiber foods, such as whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits, which can help regulate blood sugar levels. Additionally, foods rich in magnesium and low-glycemic index fruits are beneficial. For instance, leafy greens and nuts are excellent sources of magnesium, which aids in blood sugar control.

  • Whole grains (e.g., oats, barley)
  • Legumes (e.g., beans, lentils)
  • Low-GI fruits (e.g., berries, apples)
  • Leafy greens (e.g., spinach, kale)

Foods to Avoid

To prevent blood sugar spikes, it is essential to limit foods that are high in refined sugars and carbohydrates. Avoid sugary beverages, processed snacks, and high-GI foods that can rapidly increase blood sugar levels. Instead, opt for water and healthy snacks that contribute to overall health and help maintain stable blood sugar levels.

  • Sugary drinks (e.g., soda, fruit juices)
  • Processed foods (e.g., cookies, cakes)
  • High-GI foods (e.g., white bread, potatoes)

Balancing Macronutrients

Balancing the intake of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats is key to managing diabetes effectively. A balanced diet helps in stabilizing blood sugar levels and preventing long-term complications. Carbohydrates should be consumed in moderation and paired with proteins or healthy fats to minimize blood sugar spikes.

Balanced diet tip: Always pair carbohydrates with protein or fat to stabilize blood sugar levels.

Stress Management Techniques for Better Blood Sugar Control

Stress and higher sugar are related problems

Stress can significantly impact blood sugar levels by affecting insulin production and increasing the release of glucose from the liver. Managing stress is crucial for maintaining stable blood sugar levels and overall health in individuals with diabetes.

Effective Stress Reduction Methods

Incorporating stress reduction techniques into daily life can help manage blood sugar effectively. Practices such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, and engaging in hobbies are beneficial. Additionally, regular physical activities like yoga can also reduce stress and improve insulin sensitivity.

Case Studies on Stress Management

Several studies highlight the effectiveness of stress management in controlling blood sugar. A notable study involving nursing students showed that a combination of yoga and meditation significantly reduced stress levels and lowered blood glucose after 12 weeks.

The Role of Sleep in Blood Sugar Regulation

Sleep Patterns and Glucose Metabolism

Sleep is a critical factor in regulating glucose metabolism. Poor or limited sleep affects body chemistry, leading to increased blood sugar levels. A study highlighted that healthy volunteers who slept only four hours for three consecutive nights exhibited a significant reduction in insulin’s ability to regulate blood sugar, by approximately 23 percent.

Improving Sleep Quality

Improving sleep quality can directly benefit blood sugar control. Strategies to enhance sleep include maintaining a regular sleep schedule, creating a restful environment, and avoiding stimulants close to bedtime. These steps help in stabilizing blood sugar levels and improving overall health.

The Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

The consequences of sleep deprivation extend beyond poor blood sugar control; it is also linked with obesity, heart disease, and stroke. Ensuring adequate sleep is therefore not only vital for managing diabetes but also for overall health maintenance.

Holistic Approaches to Cardiovascular Health in Diabetics

Heart Disease and Diabetes

Heart disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with diabetes. A holistic approach to cardiovascular health focuses on more than just managing blood sugar; it includes lifestyle modifications, dietary adjustments, and stress management to improve overall heart health. Regular monitoring and proactive management of cardiovascular risk factors can significantly reduce the incidence of heart-related complications in diabetics.

Natural Ways to Improve Heart Health

Incorporating natural remedies and practices can play a crucial role in supporting cardiovascular health. Herbs such as garlic, turmeric, and ginger are known for their anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-lowering properties. Additionally, omega-3 fatty acids, found in fish oil and flaxseeds, are beneficial for heart health due to their ability to improve lipid profiles and reduce inflammation.

Monitoring Cardiovascular Health

Regular check-ups and cardiovascular screenings are essential for detecting potential heart issues early. Diabetics should have their blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and other cardiovascular markers routinely monitored. This proactive approach allows for timely interventions and adjustments in their holistic health plan, ensuring optimal heart health and reducing the risk of severe complications.

Understanding and Managing Inflammation in Diabetes

Causes of Inflammation in Diabetics

Inflammation is a critical factor in the progression of diabetes and its complications. Chronic inflammation can be triggered by obesity, poor diet, and sedentary lifestyle, all of which are prevalent in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Addressing these root causes through lifestyle changes is essential for managing inflammation effectively.

Natural Anti-inflammatory Strategies

Several natural strategies can help reduce inflammation in diabetic patients. These include:

  • Incorporating anti-inflammatory foods like turmeric, ginger, and omega-3 fatty acids.
  • Regular physical activity to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce inflammatory markers.
  • Adequate hydration to help flush out toxins that may contribute to inflammation.

The Impact of Inflammation on Blood Sugar Levels

Inflammation directly affects blood sugar control by impairing insulin action and secretion. Reducing inflammation can therefore improve glycemic control, which is a key goal in diabetes management. This connection highlights the importance of a holistic approach to diabetes care that includes managing inflammation.

Improving Lipid Profiles through Holistic Methods

The Importance of Lipid Management

Managing lipid profiles is crucial for diabetic patients as it directly impacts their risk for cardiovascular diseases. Holistic methods focus on natural remedies and lifestyle changes to improve lipid balance and overall health. Incorporating plant sterols has been shown to cause a modest reduction in LDL-C and total cholesterol, which are key components of lipid management.

Natural Remedies for Lipid Balance

A variety of natural products can be utilized to manage lipid levels effectively. These include:

  • Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil or flaxseeds
  • Niacin (Vitamin B3)
  • Soluble fiber from oats, barley, and fruits
  • Garlic and soy products

Diet and Exercise for Lipid Health

Diet and exercise remain the cornerstone of any holistic approach to health. For lipid management, a diet low in saturated fats and high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is recommended. Regular physical activity, particularly aerobic exercises, can also significantly improve lipid profiles and enhance insulin sensitivity.

Blockquote: Emphasizing a balanced diet and consistent exercise can lead to substantial improvements in lipid profiles and overall well-being.

Enhancing Quality of Life for Diabetic Patients

Holistic Strategies for Well-being

Holistic strategies emphasize a comprehensive approach to managing diabetes, focusing on both physical and mental health. Incorporating a balanced diet, regular physical activity, and stress management techniques can significantly enhance the quality of life for diabetic patients. These methods help in maintaining stable blood sugar levels and reducing the risk of complications.

Patient Success Stories

Many patients have reported improvements in their daily lives after adopting holistic practices. Success stories often highlight increased energy levels, better control of blood sugar, and a more positive outlook on life. These narratives serve as powerful testimonials to the efficacy of holistic approaches in diabetes management.

Long-term Benefits of Holistic Care

The long-term benefits of holistic care for diabetic patients include improved overall health, reduced need for medications, and a lower risk of diabetes-related complications. Emphasizing preventive care and lifestyle modifications can lead to a sustained improvement in life quality and longevity.

Integrating Holistic Practices with Conventional Diabetes Treatment

When to Combine Treatments

Integrating holistic practices with conventional diabetes treatment should be considered when patients are not achieving their health goals through standard medical approaches alone. Holistic practices can complement medical treatments by addressing lifestyle factors and mental health, which are often overlooked in conventional care.

Safety and Efficacy

It is crucial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combining holistic and conventional treatments. Patients should consult healthcare professionals to tailor a plan that includes both approaches, ensuring that they are compatible and beneficial.

Patient and Practitioner Perspectives

Understanding both patient and practitioner perspectives on integrating holistic practices is essential for a successful treatment plan. This collaboration fosters a more comprehensive approach to diabetes management, enhancing patient satisfaction and health outcomes.


Holistic Nurses and specialists can help one manage sugar or diabetes with a healthier life style and supplements to existing medication

In conclusion, adopting a holistic approach to managing high blood sugar and type 2 diabetes involves a comprehensive consideration of the individual’s entire well-being. This includes dietary changes, regular physical activity, stress management, and the potential integration of natural supplements like berberine. Each element plays a crucial role in optimizing blood sugar control and enhancing overall health. By addressing the interconnected factors that influence diabetes, individuals can achieve more sustainable health outcomes. It is essential, however, to consult healthcare professionals when incorporating new treatments or supplements to ensure safety and efficacy.

Please also review AIHCP’s Holistic and Integrative Health Care Specialist Certification and see if it meets your academic and professional goals.  The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification.  Holistic Nurses are excellent guides to helping individuals manage sugar and also diabetes 1 or 2.  Through alternative herbs, diet and exercise, sugar can be lowered.  Whether trying to avoid diabetes and manage sugar, or if already afflicted with diabetes 1 or 2, holistic nurses can help guide individuals into better life choices and supplements that can make a large difference in overall health and life style.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is holistic nursing and how does it relate to diabetes management?

Holistic nursing focuses on healing the whole person by considering their physical, mental, and emotional well-being. In diabetes management, this approach involves integrating dietary, lifestyle, and possibly natural supplements like berberine to optimize blood sugar control and overall health.

Can diabetes be reversed naturally?

Type 2 diabetes can be managed effectively through dietary and lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity, fiber intake, and careful management of sugar intake. While not reversible for everyone, these changes can significantly improve blood sugar levels and reduce dependency on medications.

What herbs are known to help with diabetes?

Several herbs are known to help manage blood sugar levels, including cinnamon, fenugreek, and berberine. These herbs have been shown to have glucose-lowering properties, making them useful in a holistic approach to diabetes management.

How does exercise impact blood sugar control?

Regular physical activity helps muscles use glucose for energy and improves insulin sensitivity. This can lead to lower blood sugar levels and is a crucial component of a holistic diabetes management plan.

What are the benefits of integrating berberine in a diabetes management plan?

Berberine has been shown to improve glucose metabolism, enhance insulin sensitivity, and reduce blood sugar levels. Integrating berberine with dietary and lifestyle changes can enhance the effectiveness of diabetes management from a holistic perspective.

How important is sleep in managing diabetes?

Adequate sleep is critical for maintaining hormonal balance and glucose metabolism. Poor sleep can lead to increased insulin resistance and higher blood sugar levels, making sleep an essential component of holistic diabetes management.

A diet rich in whole foods, fiber, and healthy fats, along with reduced intake of processed foods and sugars, is recommended for managing high blood sugar. Balancing macronutrients and careful meal planning can significantly improve blood sugar control.

Can stress affect blood sugar levels?

Yes, stress can significantly impact blood sugar levels. Stress management techniques like meditation, deep breathing exercises, and engaging in hobbies can help regulate stress hormones and support overall well-being in managing diabetes.

Additional Resources

“Diabetes management: How lifestyle, daily routine affect blood sugar”. Mayo Clinic Staff.  Mayo Clinic.  Access here

“Living with Diabetes”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC. Access here

Juanamasta, G. et, al. (2021). “Holistic Care Management of Diabetes Mellitus: An Integrative Review”. Int J Prev Med. 2021; 12: 69. National Library of Medicine.  Access here

“What To Know About Berberine: Benefits, Uses and Side Effects”. Cleveland Clinic Essentials. Cleveland Clinic.  Access here


EFT and Phobias

Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) has shown considerable promise in alleviating phobias, a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an intense and irrational fear of specific situations, activities, or objects. This article explores the multifaceted approach of EFT in addressing phobias, highlighting its mechanisms, effectiveness, and practical application through various therapeutic frameworks.

Eft can help individuals overcome fears and phobias. Please review AIHCP’s EFT Practitioner Program


Key Takeaways

  • EFT provides rapid relief from phobia symptoms by desensitizing fear responses and enhancing confidence in handling anxiety-provoking situations.
  • By focusing on acupressure points, EFT disrupts the conditioned fear responses, reducing the emotional intensity linked to phobias.
  • Working with a trained EFT therapist is crucial as they tailor the technique to individual needs and ensure a supportive therapeutic environment.
  • EFT can be effectively integrated with other therapeutic approaches like cognitive behavioral therapy to enhance treatment outcomes for phobias.
  • Recent research and case studies underscore the success of EFT in treating phobias, noting significant improvements in symptoms and quality of life.

Understanding Phobias: Origins and Manifestations

Defining Phobias

Phobias are characterized by an intense and irrational fear of specific objects, situations, or activities. These fears are not just extreme but also deeply rooted in past experiences, traumatic events, or learned behaviors, leading to significant distress and avoidance behaviors.

Common Triggers and Symptoms

Phobias can manifest through various symptoms, which may include rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, sweating, and trembling. Common triggers include heights, spiders, and flying, which can cause panic attacks and a strong desire to avoid the feared stimulus.

Biological and Psychological Foundations

Phobias often develop due to a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Understanding these foundations is crucial for effective treatment. The biological aspect involves the brain’s response to fear, while the psychological aspect explores how past experiences shape fear responses.

The Principles of Emotional Freedom Techniques

Overview of EFT

Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) is a holistic healing method that integrates elements of traditional Chinese medicine and modern psychological acupressure techniques. EFT is designed to address emotional and psychological issues by tapping on specific acupressure points while focusing on particular emotional concerns.

Key Components of the Technique

EFT operates on several core principles that enhance its effectiveness. These include the identification and direct addressing of negative emotions, the physical interaction through tapping, and the cognitive reassessment of distressing situations.

The Role of Acupressure Points

The acupressure points used in EFT are critical to its success. These points, located on various parts of the body, are believed to be linked to the body’s energy flow, known as meridians. Tapping on these points while concentrating on emotional issues helps to release blockages in the energy system, facilitating healing and emotional freedom.

EFT in Action: Mechanisms and Effects

How EFT Targets Fear Responses

EFT helps individuals find calm when facing fears.

EFT operates on the premise that emotional distress is caused by disruptions in the body’s energy system. By tapping on specific acupressure points, EFT aims to restore the balance of energy and alleviate emotional distress. The act of tapping on these points is believed to send calming signals to the brain, reducing the intensity of negative emotions. This targeted approach directly addresses the fear responses associated with phobias, making it a potent tool for emotional regulation and fear management.

Neural and Emotional Rewiring

During an EFT session, individuals focus on their specific issue or problem while tapping on the designated points. This process helps to bring the issue to the surface and allows for the release of negative emotions, beliefs, and memories associated with it. By addressing these underlying emotional components, EFT aims to bring about emotional healing and create positive changes. The technique’s ability to rewire emotional responses is central to its effectiveness in treating phobias.

Case Studies: EFT Success Stories

EFT has been applied successfully in numerous cases, helping individuals overcome their phobias and regain control over their emotional responses. These success stories highlight the practical benefits and transformative potential of EFT in real-world scenarios. The following are some key outcomes observed in various case studies:

Practical Application of EFT for Phobias

Step-by-Step EFT Process for Phobias

To effectively utilize EFT for phobias, a structured approach is essential. Begin by identifying the specific phobia and the associated emotional response. The process typically involves several steps:

  1. Acknowledgment of the emotional issue
  2. Identification of the acupressure points to be targeted
  3. Application of gentle tapping on these points while focusing on the phobia
  4. Vocal affirmation of acceptance despite the phobia
  5. Reassessment of emotional intensity and repetition if necessary

This methodical approach helps in desensitizing the fear response, enabling individuals to face previously daunting situations with increased confidence.

Role of a Trained EFT Therapist

Working with a trained EFT therapist is crucial for the successful application of EFT in treating phobias. A skilled therapist can provide necessary guidance, support, and customization of the technique to suit individual needs. They ensure that the process is conducted safely and effectively, maximizing the potential for improvement.

It’s important to note that while EFT can be a powerful tool in addressing phobias, it is recommended to work with a trained EFT therapist.

Creating a Supportive Environment

Creating a supportive environment is integral to the success of EFT for phobias. This involves establishing a safe space where individuals feel comfortable expressing their fears without judgment. Support from family, friends, and therapists plays a significant role in reinforcing the positive effects of EFT and encouraging continued progress.

Combining EFT with Other Therapeutic Approaches

Integrative Therapy Strategies

EFT can be effectively combined with other therapeutic approaches to create a holistic treatment plan. Depending on the needs of the individual, therapists may integrate EFT with techniques such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), exposure therapy, or mindfulness-based interventions. This integration allows for a more comprehensive approach to treating phobias, enhancing the effectiveness of each method.

Enhancing EFT with Cognitive Behavioral Techniques

EFT can be a valuable complement to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). By integrating these two powerful techniques, therapists can address both the emotional and cognitive aspects of phobias. This dual approach not only helps in reducing the symptoms but also in altering the underlying thought patterns that contribute to the phobia.

Case Examples of Combined Therapies

Integrating EFT into therapy allows individuals to harness the benefits of this powerful technique alongside other therapeutic approaches. By working with experienced EFT therapists, individuals can embark on a transformative journey towards overcoming their phobias and achieving emotional freedom. The combination of EFT with other therapeutic modalities empowers individuals to address their phobias from multiple angles, leading to lasting change and personal growth.

Research and Evidence on EFT for Phobias

Recent Studies and Findings

Recent research has demonstrated that EFT can significantly reduce the intensity of phobic responses and enhance emotional well-being. Studies highlight the rapid effectiveness of EFT, often showing substantial improvement in phobia symptoms after just a few sessions. Notable findings include:

  • A reduction in phobia-related anxiety
  • Improved emotional regulation
  • Decreased avoidance behaviors

Analysis of EFT’s Effectiveness

The analysis of various studies indicates that EFT is not only effective but also provides long-term benefits in managing phobias. It is crucial, however, to ensure that the therapy is administered by a trained professional to achieve optimal results. The structured approach of EFT, combined with its focus on acupressure points, contributes to its success in treating phobias.

Expert Opinions and Reviews

Experts in the field of psychological therapies have praised EFT for its innovative approach to treating phobias. They emphasize the importance of a supportive therapeutic environment and the role of a skilled practitioner. Reviews often point to the need for further research to fully understand the mechanisms behind EFT and to establish standardized guidelines for its practice.

Potential Obstacles in EFT Practice

While EFT has proven beneficial for many, certain obstacles can hinder its effectiveness. These include a lack of understanding of the technique, resistance from clients, and the variability in practitioner skill levels. Proper training and experience are crucial for practitioners to navigate these challenges effectively.

Addressing Complex Phobias

Complex phobias often require a multifaceted approach. EFT, while powerful, may not be sufficient alone. It is essential to integrate other therapeutic modalities to ensure comprehensive treatment. This integration allows for a more robust approach to tackling deep-seated phobias.

Ensuring Ethical and Effective Use

Ethical considerations are paramount in the practice of EFT. Practitioners must maintain high standards of professionalism and client care. It is vital to ensure that EFT is used appropriately and that clients are better prepared to navigate future challenges without reverting to old, unhealthy behaviors.


EFT can help with phobias. Please also review AIHCP’s Emotional Freedom Technique Practitioner Certification and see if it meets your academic and professional goals.

In conclusion, Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) has demonstrated considerable efficacy in addressing and alleviating phobias. Through the strategic tapping on acupressure points, EFT helps to disrupt the conditioned fear responses and reduce the emotional intensity linked to phobias. This technique not only desensitizes individuals to their fears but also empowers them to engage more fully in life without the constraints of overwhelming anxiety. It is, however, crucial to undertake EFT under the supervision of a trained therapist to ensure the process is tailored effectively to individual needs and to maximize the therapeutic benefits. The promising results from various case studies and research underscore the potential of EFT as a transformative tool for those struggling with phobias.

Please also review AIHCP’s EFT Practitioner Program.  The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification as Emotional Freedom Technique Practitioner.  EFT can help many deal with phobias, stress, anxiety and past trauma.  Trained professionals can help guide many individuals to a world of self care that frees them from these types of ailments.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is EFT and how does it help with phobias?

Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) is a therapeutic approach that involves tapping on specific acupressure points on the body while focusing on a phobia or fear. This process helps to rewire the brain’s neural pathways and reduce the emotional intensity associated with the phobia, leading to a reduction in fear and anxiety.

Can EFT provide quick relief from phobias?

Yes, EFT can offer significant relief from phobias often in a relatively short period of time. It helps to desensitize the fear response, enabling individuals to handle previously anxiety-provoking situations with more ease and confidence.

Is it necessary to work with a trained EFT therapist?

While EFT can be practiced individually, it is recommended to work with a trained EFT therapist for guidance, especially for addressing specific phobias and individual needs. A skilled therapist can provide support and tailor the technique effectively.

What are the primary benefits of using EFT for phobias?

EFT can reduce anxiety and fear associated with specific triggers. By tapping on acupressure points while focusing on the phobic stimulus, EFT helps to rewire the brain’s response, allowing for gradual desensitization to the phobia and decreased anxiety levels.

Can EFT be combined with other therapeutic approaches?

Yes, EFT can be effectively combined with other therapeutic approaches such as cognitive behavioral therapy. This integrative strategy can enhance the effectiveness of EFT, providing a more comprehensive treatment for phobias.

What does research say about the effectiveness of EFT for phobias?

Research has shown promising results for EFT in treating phobias, with many individuals experiencing significant improvements in their symptoms. However, it is important to conduct EFT under the guidance of a qualified practitioner to ensure its effectiveness and safety.

Additional Resources

Leonard, J. (2019). “A guide to EFT tapping”. MedicalNewsToday.  Access here

Broening, J, (2023). “EFT Revolution: Transforming Phobias with Emotional Freedom Techniques”. Quenza.  Access here

Anthony, K. (2023). “EFT tapping focuses on tapping the 12 meridian points of the body to relieve symptoms of a negative experience or emotion.”. Healthline. Access here

Bach, D. et, al. (2019). “Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) Improves Multiple Physiological Markers of Health”. J Evid Based Integr Med. 2019; 24: 2515690X18823691. National Library of Medicine. Access here

Case management and physical therapy

This article explores the multifaceted role of case management in the realm of physical therapy. It delves into how case managers coordinate care, the various settings in which they operate, and the challenges they face. The integration of case management with physical therapy aims to enhance patient outcomes by ensuring a holistic approach to rehabilitation and care.  Please also review AIHCP’s Case Management Certification

A Case manager can ensure your physical therapy is successful and organized. Please also review AIHCP’s Case Management Certification


Key Takeaways

  • Case management is pivotal in orchestrating comprehensive rehabilitation plans in physical therapy.
  • Case managers often operate in diverse environments including hospitals, outpatient facilities, and private practices.
  • Certification in specialized areas of case management can bolster professional credibility and expertise.
  • Technological advancements such as telehealth are significantly shaping the landscape of physical therapy case management.
  • Case managers play a crucial role in patient advocacy, striving to ensure that care is both effective and cost-efficient.

The Role of Case Management in Physical Therapy

Defining the Responsibilities

Case management in physical therapy encompasses planning, organizing, coordinating, monitoring, and evaluating the services and resources needed for a patient’s rehabilitation. Case managers play a pivotal role in ensuring that patients receive comprehensive and tailored rehabilitation services, which are crucial for effective recovery.

Settings and Environments

Case managers operate in various settings which significantly influence their roles and responsibilities. These include hospitals, inpatient and outpatient centers, home health settings, insurance companies, and private practices. Each setting demands specific skills and knowledge to manage patient care effectively.

Certification and Professional Development

Becoming certified in case management can enhance a professional’s credibility and show their commitment to high standards of patient care. Continuous professional development is essential, as it equips case managers with the latest skills and knowledge to handle complex rehabilitation scenarios effectively.

Understanding the Rehabilitation Case Manager

Case Manager can ensure you receive the care you need to fully recover

Roles and Responsibilities

A rehabilitation case manager is a trained professional who helps to plan, organize, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate services and resources for a rehabilitation patient. They are pivotal in ensuring that each patient receives comprehensive and tailored care, though they do not provide direct patient care themselves. Case managers serve as a crucial link between the patient and the healthcare system, ensuring that all aspects of care are addressed efficiently and effectively.

Internal vs. External Case Managers

Case managers can operate within the healthcare facility as part of the rehabilitation team or may work externally for an insurance company. The choice between internal and external roles often depends on the specific needs of the patient and the resources available. Internal case managers are deeply integrated into the patient’s treatment team, which allows for a more personalized and immediate response to patient needs. External case managers, while not as closely involved on a day-to-day basis, still play a vital role in managing the broader aspects of patient care, particularly in terms of insurance and cost management.

Advocacy and Patient Care Coordination

Case managers advocate for patients by coordinating care and navigating the complex healthcare system. They ensure that patients receive the necessary treatments and support from various healthcare professionals. This coordination is crucial for effective rehabilitation and often involves a variety of settings, including hospitals, outpatient centers, and home health environments. The role of the case manager in patient advocacy cannot be overstated, as they strive to secure the best possible outcomes for their patients.

Key Settings for Physical Therapy Case Management

Physical therapy case management is integral to ensuring effective patient care across various settings. Each setting offers unique advantages and challenges that influence the management strategies employed by case managers.

Hospitals and Inpatient Centers

In these settings, case managers coordinate comprehensive care plans that often involve multiple healthcare professionals. The focus is on intensive rehabilitation following surgery, injury, or severe health episodes. Hospitals and inpatient centers are equipped with advanced medical technology and staff that specialize in acute care, making them ideal for complex case management.

Outpatient and Home Health Settings

These settings provide flexibility and convenience for patients who require ongoing but less intensive care. Case managers in these environments focus on continuity of care and patient education to ensure long-term wellness. Home health settings, in particular, allow for personalized care in the patient’s own environment, which can significantly enhance recovery and independence.

Insurance and Private Practice Environments

Case management in these settings often involves navigating insurance policies and advocating for patient needs to ensure coverage and access to necessary therapies. Private practices offer tailored care that can be adjusted quickly based on patient progress, which is crucial for effective rehabilitation.

  • Hospitals and Inpatient Centers: Intensive care, advanced technology
  • Outpatient and Home Health: Flexibility, patient education
  • Insurance and Private Practice: Policy navigation, tailored care

Specialized Areas in Physical Therapy

Physical therapy encompasses a variety of specialized areas, each tailored to address specific medical conditions and patient needs. These areas are critical for providing targeted treatments that improve patient outcomes.

Pediatric Rehabilitation

Pediatric rehabilitation focuses on the unique needs of children and adolescents suffering from injuries, developmental delays, or congenital conditions. This specialization ensures that young patients receive care that promotes optimal growth and development.

Neuromuscular and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation for neuromuscular and musculoskeletal conditions involves restoring function and reducing pain in patients with injuries or diseases affecting muscles, nerves, and bones. Techniques such as manual therapy, exercise, and modalities are commonly employed.

Specialty Programs and Techniques

This area includes advanced and innovative treatments such as vestibular rehabilitation, concussion management, and lymphedema management. These programs are designed to address less common but equally challenging health issues.

The integration of specialized programs into patient care plans significantly enhances the effectiveness of physical therapy treatments.

Integrating Social Work with Physical Therapy

Role of Clinical Social Workers

Clinical social workers play a pivotal role in the multidisciplinary approach to physical therapy. They address the emotional and psychosocial aspects of patient care, which are crucial for holistic rehabilitation. Social workers offer vital support in navigating the complexities of healthcare systems and enhancing patient compliance with treatment protocols.

Emotional and Psychological Support

The integration of social work into physical therapy ensures that patients receive comprehensive care that extends beyond physical recovery. Emotional and psychological support provided by social workers helps patients cope with the stress and anxiety that often accompany physical ailments. This support is essential for improving overall patient outcomes and promoting long-term wellness.

Community Resource Connection

Social workers assist in connecting patients with community resources that can aid in their rehabilitation process. These resources include disease-specific education, transportation, and care coordination. By facilitating access to these services, social workers ensure that patients have the necessary tools to succeed in their recovery journey outside of clinical settings.

Challenges in Physical Therapy Case Management

Case Managers ensure cost effective and quality therapy for patients

Navigating the complex healthcare systems remains a significant challenge in physical therapy case management. Case managers must ensure seamless coordination among various healthcare providers, which is crucial for delivering effective patient care. This often involves dealing with intricate insurance policies and diverse medical regulations, which can vary significantly from one region to another.

Ensuring Quality and Cost-Effectiveness

The dual goals of maintaining high-quality care while managing costs are particularly challenging. Case managers are tasked with finding the most effective treatments that are also cost-efficient. This often involves negotiating with service providers and advocating for patient needs without compromising the quality of care.

Dealing with Complex Cases

Complex cases, such as those involving multiple chronic conditions or severe injuries, require intensive management. These cases demand a high level of expertise and often a multidisciplinary approach to ensure comprehensive care. The ability to manage such cases effectively is a testament to a case manager’s skill and dedication.

Technological Advances in Physical Therapy

Telehealth Services

The integration of telehealth services has revolutionized patient access to physical therapy, allowing for remote consultations and treatments. This has been particularly beneficial during periods where in-person sessions are not feasible. Telehealth platforms facilitate real-time interaction between patients and therapists, ensuring continuity of care and support.

Innovative Rehabilitation Techniques

Advancements in rehabilitation technology, such as the use of wearable sensors and smart devices, have significantly enhanced the precision and effectiveness of physical therapy treatments. These technologies provide detailed feedback on patient progress and enable personalized adjustment of therapy protocols.

Impact of Technology on Patient Care

The adoption of advanced technologies in physical therapy has led to improved patient outcomes and satisfaction. Technologies like virtual reality and augmented reality are being used to create immersive rehabilitation experiences that can accelerate recovery and motivate patients.

The goal of integrating technology in physical therapy is to enhance the quality of care and make rehabilitation more accessible and effective for all patients.

Educational and Community Resources

Disease-Specific Education

Physical therapy case management often involves educating patients about specific diseases to enhance understanding and management of their conditions. This education is crucial for empowering patients and can include information sessions, workshops, and distribution of educational materials.

Transportation and Accessibility

Ensuring patients have access to physical therapy services involves addressing transportation and accessibility. This may involve coordinating with transportation services or providing resources to help patients navigate to and from treatment locations efficiently.

Connecting to Community Services

Physical therapists and case managers play a vital role in connecting patients to community services. These services can range from support groups and health education classes to more comprehensive care coordination with community health centers.

Patient-Centered Care in Physical Therapy

Individualized Treatment Plans

In the realm of physical therapy, individualized treatment plans are crucial for addressing the unique needs and goals of each patient. These plans are developed through a collaborative process involving patients, therapists, and often other healthcare professionals. This approach ensures that each treatment strategy is tailored specifically to improve patient outcomes and enhance recovery efficiency.

Patient Advocacy

Patient advocacy in physical therapy involves therapists acting as advocates for their patients’ needs and rights within the healthcare system. This role is vital for ensuring that patients receive the appropriate care and resources necessary for their rehabilitation. Advocacy also includes educating patients about their conditions and the available treatment options, empowering them to make informed decisions about their health care.

Feedback and Improvement Processes

Feedback mechanisms are integral to patient-centered care, allowing for continuous improvement in treatment approaches and patient satisfaction. Regularly soliciting feedback from patients helps therapists to adjust treatments as needed and fosters a responsive and adaptive care environment. This process not only improves the quality of care but also strengthens the therapeutic relationship between patients and providers.

Rehabilitation Techniques and Their Impact

Case Managers help individuals reach full recovery

Cognitive and Physical Rehabilitation

Cognitive and physical rehabilitation techniques are crucial in restoring function and enhancing the quality of life for individuals with various conditions. Through various therapeutic exercises and hands-on techniques, these interventions alleviate pain and improve overall comfort, addressing both the mental and physical aspects of recovery.

Long-term vs. Short-term Rehabilitation

The duration of rehabilitation significantly influences patient outcomes. Short-term rehabilitation often focuses on immediate recovery post-injury or surgery, while long-term rehabilitation supports chronic conditions or severe injuries, ensuring sustained improvement and functionality.

Evaluating Treatment Efficacy

It is essential to regularly assess the efficacy of rehabilitation techniques to ensure optimal patient care. This involves both qualitative feedback from patients and quantitative measures such as recovery rates and functional improvement statistics. Effective evaluation helps in refining treatment plans and enhancing therapeutic outcomes.

Professional Development for Case Managers

Continuing Education

Continuing education is vital for case managers to stay updated with the latest trends and practices in physical therapy. Case managers must navigate a variety of educational resources to enhance their skills and knowledge. This includes attending workshops, seminars, and online courses that focus on rehabilitation and case management techniques.  The American Academy of Case Management offers a variety of CE options and courses for professionals in the area of Case Management.

Certification Opportunities

Certification serves as a benchmark for professional competency and is highly regarded in the field of physical therapy case management. Case managers can pursue certifications through recognized bodies, which often require ongoing education.  Please review AIHCP’s Case Management Program

Building a Network of Professionals

Networking is essential for career growth and success in case management. Engaging with professional organizations and attending industry conferences can help case managers connect with peers, share knowledge, and discover new opportunities in the field.

Predictive Analytics in Patient Care

The integration of predictive analytics in patient care is transforming how therapists anticipate patient needs and outcomes. By analyzing historical and real-time data, case managers can more accurately forecast patient trajectories and optimize treatment plans.

Integrating Multidisciplinary Approaches

The trend towards multidisciplinary approaches in physical therapy involves collaboration across various specialties. This integration enhances comprehensive care and ensures that all aspects of a patient’s health are addressed.

Policy Changes and Their Implications

Significant policy changes are anticipated to impact the field of physical therapy and case management. These changes will likely dictate new standards for practice and patient care, requiring adaptations in both strategy and operations.


Please also review The American Academy of Case Managements and its Case Management Certification and see if it meets your professional goals

In conclusion, the integration of CASE management within the realm of physical therapy presents a multifaceted approach to patient care that enhances both the efficiency and effectiveness of rehabilitation services. By leveraging the expertise of case managers, who are often specialized rehabilitation nurses or clinical social workers, physical therapy programs can offer more coordinated, comprehensive care that addresses the full spectrum of patient needs. This collaborative model not only ensures quality and cost-effective healthcare services but also advocates for patient welfare, making it a vital component in modern rehabilitative care. The future of physical therapy, enriched with robust case management, promises greater patient satisfaction and improved health outcomes.

Please review AIHCP’s Case Management Programand see if it meets your academic and professional goals.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the role of a case manager in physical therapy?

A case manager in physical therapy helps to plan, organize, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate services and resources for rehabilitation patients. They ensure quality, cost-effective healthcare services and advocate for the patient.

Where do case managers practice?

Case managers can practice in various settings including hospitals, inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation centers, home health settings, insurance companies, and private practices.

Can case managers provide direct patient care?

Typically, case managers do not provide direct patient care but may work as part of the rehabilitation team or for the patient’s insurance company.

What certifications are available for case managers?

Case managers may choose to become certified in their specialty to enhance their expertise and career prospects.

What is the role of clinical social workers in physical therapy?

Clinical social workers in physical therapy provide emotional and psychological support, help with coping with illness or injury, and connect patients and families to community-based services and resources.

What specialized areas exist within physical therapy?

Specialized areas in physical therapy include pediatric, neuromuscular, musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and various specialty programs and techniques such as vestibular and concussion rehabilitation.

What technological advances are impacting physical therapy?

Technological advances such as telehealth services and innovative rehabilitation techniques are increasingly being integrated into physical therapy, enhancing patient care and accessibility.

How do physical therapists connect patients to community services?

Physical therapists can refer patients to clinic social workers or other community resources to ensure comprehensive care coordination and support beyond clinical treatment.

Additional Resources

Davis. E. (2023). “Duties and Types of Case Managers”. VeryWellHealth. Access here

Foy, C. (2023). “What Is a Case Manager at a Rehab Center?”. FHEhealth. Access here

“Physical Therapy”. Cleveland Clinic. Access here

Carr, D. (2005). “The Case Manager’s Role in Optimizing Acute Rehabilitation Services”. Professional Case Management. Access here

Role of Funeral and Death Rituals Video

The funeral and other death rituals across various cultures and religions play not only critical roles in spirituality for the deceased but also play key roles in mental and emotional adjustment to the loss for the family and living.  Funerals for many help them acknowledge the loss and receive support and love from family and friends.  This is critical in adjustment.  Although it is the first step in a long journey, it does help individuals find some type of recognition of the loss itself.

The funeral helps one recognize the death. Please also review AIHCP’s Funeral Associate Program and Grief Counseling Program






Please also review AIHCP’s Funeral Associate Program and see if it meets your academic and professional goals. Also, please review AIHCP’s Grief Counseling Certification.  Both programs are online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking certification to enhance a career.



Please review the video below

Stress Management and Salutogenesis

Stress and stressors erode a person’s ability to cope with life, whether in the workplace, school,  home, or with family or friends.  Stressors ignite within the human person a stress response to face danger.  The Sympathetic Nervous System within the body prepares the body from a physiological standpoint to physically withstand the danger or stressors by fueling the body cortisol and adrenalines to overcome the situation.  If the human body or any organism for that matter is overcame by the stressor, then weakness and possible disease and shock can occur. Only when the body or organism is able to overcome the stressor is it able to again return to normal functioning.

When a stressor overtakes a person or organism, then the person is no longer able to cope. The Sense of Coherence when exhibited illustrates an individual who can overcome a stressor


In most stress research, disease and weakening of the organism via poor health is viewed through the lens of pathogenesis and the reasons why individuals become sick, ill or die.  Obviously stress can play a key role in that.  With chronic influxes of cortisol, the blood pressure, constriction of vessels, and higher tension on the heart can have life altering affects on the body.  However, there is another angle to explore in regards to the body’s over health and its reaction to stress.  Aaron Antonovsky (1923-1994) reviewed how health and disease are not dichotomy of two states but a continuous variable based on health and coping. This includes various holistic approaches as well as diet, exercise and life views that help individuals maintain health.  Antonovksy’s famous concept of salutogenesis looks and focuses more so on the factors and practices that promote health instead of what destroys health.  Stemming from the Greek “salus” meaning health and “genesis” meaning origin, salutogenesis looks to maintain health by healthy practices and healthy origins itself.

In regards to stress and loss, this has great implications.  Many individuals under stress or loss are unable to maintain physical, mental and emotional health and can fall prey to the stressor.  As noted the stress kills and an inability to better cope with stress in a healthy way can be detrimental long term to one’s health.  Hence Atonovksy looks the concept of coherence as gold mark of individuals who maintain a stronger mental and emotional health in responding to loss or a stressor.  These types of individuals are far better equipped to cope with stress in the forms of loss, death, job loss, problems, crisis, or any bump in the road.  The resiliency of those who display coherence is stronger than those who do not.

Sense of Coherence

So what is coherence?  The Sense of Coherence forms a theoretical framework for how a person responds to stress and plays a key role in one’s ability to respond to it.   In Atonovsky’s work, “Unraveling the Mystery of Health, Antonovsky lists the key elements of the Sense of Coherence.  He states,

“a global orientation that expresses the extent to which one has a pervasive, enduring though dynamic feeling of confidence that  the stimuli deriving from one’s internal and external environments in the course of living are structured, predictable and explicable; the resources are available to one to meet the demands posed by these stimuli; and (3) these demands are challenges, worthy of investment and engagement.”

Wikipedia.  Access here

Within this, one can see three key elements to coherence.  First the person has comprehension of the situation.  The person has an understanding of what is occurring and the person is able to predict and understand  the outcomes.  This understanding lays the foundation for the individual to better able to cope.  One can imagine when this foundation ceases to exist.  When something so so shocking, so traumatic and so meaningless occurs it shocks the system of a person.  It gives the person no rationale or direction to resolve the issue.  This is why it is so common in traumatic loss or witnessing senseless destruction that PTSD often occurs and the individual is unable to properly process the event.

The second element is manageability.  If a person has the experience and tools to properly cope with the stressor, then the individual has a better chance to overcome it. Having control in the chaos is so important.  Antonovsky in his work, “Health, Stress and Coping” coined the term generalized resistant resources to illustrate resources and tools an individual has to overcome stress and loss.  If these resources were not available, no matter the Sense of Coherence, a person would fall to the stressor or loss due to lack of these resources.  When lacking, the term generalized resistant deficit was employed.  A good example of this would be applicable to a person who lost his or her home in a fire.  An individual with little income or support systems lacks any resources to face the stressor, while a wealthy individuals with resources, insurance, funds and good friends will more than likely survive the stress and loss.

Finally, Antonovsky pointed to the importance of everything in life has meaning and purpose.  The good and the bad occur, but there is an overall sense of understanding and purpose.  Individuals who are not anchored by a world view, whether spiritual or practical, can sometimes float in life and lose purpose and guidance when bad things occur.  Having a sense of meaning helps individuals anchor one self in loss and stress and find orientation and purpose.

Hence, comprehensibility of the stress, loss or moment, manageability of the stress, loss or moment and meaningfulness of the stress, loss or moment, are critical to a Sense of Coherence and the ability of the person or organism to maintain health and resilience against stress or loss.   In times of crisis, pandemic, or war at the social level or at times of personal distress or severe trauma on the person, individuals who display a Sense of Coherence are better equipped to excel and survive during bad times.


Salutogenesis sees health as more than an absence of disease. Please also review AIHCP’s Stress Management Program

A person or organism that is able to adjust and react due to experience, manageability and understanding of a given crisis, loss or stressor has a greater ability to respond in a healthy fashion.  A healthy emotional and mental mindset can better prepare a person for crisis and loss.  This does not mean a person will not feel the effects of a loss, but it does point to the probability of healthier and normal outcomes or resiliency.  Antonovksy’s ideas and theories are important for a better understanding of stress management as well as grief and loss trajectories.

Within Stress Management, his ideals point to how one can better handle stressful situations and find resiliency.  In grief counseling, it can help grief counselors better predict grief and loss trajectories of individuals and who may be more likely for a complicated grief reaction.

Please also review AIHCP’s Stress Management Consulting Certification as well as AIHCP’s Grief Counseling Certification and see if they meet your academic and professional goals.  The programs are online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification.


Additional Resources

“Aaron Antonovsky”. Wikipedia.  Access here

“Salutogenesis”.  Wikiepedia.  Access here

Hege Forbech Vinje, Eva Langeland, and Torill Bull. (2016). “Aaron Antonovsky’s Development of Salutogenesis, 1979 to 1994″. The Handbook of Salutogenesis [Internet].  National Library of Medicine.  Access here

Monica Eriksson and Bengt Lindström. (2006). “Antonovsky’s sense of coherence scale and the relation with health: a systematic review”. 2006 May; 60(5): 376–381. National Library of Medicine.  Access here