Case Management and its Role in Covid Care

The COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally altered the landscape of case management across various sectors, particularly in healthcare. As the world transitions from emergency protocols to a new normal, case management practices have adapted to incorporate technological advancements, address the long-term impacts of COVID-19, and meet the evolving needs of affected populations. This article explores the significant shifts and ongoing developments in case management as a response to the challenges posed by the pandemic.

Like most of the world, case management had to adjust and change to the demands of managing patients with covid.


Also, please review AIHCP’s Case Management Program and see if it meets your academic and professional goals.

Key Takeaways

  • Case management has transitioned from emergency protocols, reinstating face-to-face requirements and documenting post-emergency procedures, while adjusting to the end of remote case management.
  • The impact of COVID-19 on case management practices includes adaptations in healthcare infrastructure, challenges in post-acute care coordination, and decentralization of follow-up care to primary healthcare centers.
  • Technological advancements have led to the integration of virtual case management, the adoption of case management software across diverse industries, and improved remote collaboration and workflow management.
  • Post-COVID conditions require specialized case management strategies, adherence to CDC guidelines, and proactive management of potential workplace exposures.
  • The role of case management aides has been crucial in pandemic response, with support planning for COVID-19 affected populations emphasizing person-centered and informed choice protocols.

Transition from Emergency Protocols to Standard Case Management

Reinstating Face-to-Face Requirements

With the expiration of the temporary COVID-19 policy, case management visits that were previously conducted remotely now require in-person interaction. Lead agencies must meet minimum face-to-face requirements to ensure compliance and maintain the integrity of case management services. This reinstatement necessitates a review of protocols to ensure that case managers are equipped to safely and effectively conduct these visits.

Documenting Post-Emergency Procedures

The transition period requires meticulous documentation to capture the shift from emergency protocols to standard operations. Case managers should note “COVID-19 Emergency Protocol” at the top of case notes to document required visits during the emergency period. As standard procedures resume, it is crucial to establish clear guidelines for documenting case management activities to maintain a high standard of care and accountability.

Adjusting to the End of Remote Case Management

The end of remote case management presents both challenges and opportunities for case managers. Adapting to the post-emergency environment involves streamlining patient flow and enhancing operational efficiency. Implementing a well-structured case management program can enhance care coordination, streamline transitions, boost patient outcomes, and increase revenues. It is essential to provide case managers with the necessary tools and training to navigate these changes successfully.

As case management transitions back to standard practices, it is imperative to ensure that all procedures align with the latest health and safety guidelines, and that case managers are supported throughout this change.

Impact of COVID-19 on Case Management Practices

Adaptations in Healthcare Infrastructure

The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated rapid adaptations in healthcare infrastructure to accommodate the surge in cases and the need for remote care. Case management software became a pivotal tool, facilitating the transition to virtual environments and supporting the continuity of care. The integration of such software across healthcare systems was crucial in managing patient outcomes and streamlining processes.

  • Increased use of telehealth services
  • Adoption of remote monitoring technologies
  • Expansion of case management roles to include tele-case management

Challenges in Post-Acute Care Coordination

Post-acute care coordination faced unprecedented challenges during the pandemic. The devastating impact on Medicare beneficiaries in nursing homes highlighted the need for robust case management practices. Barriers such as reduced availability of medicines and interruptions in community outreach services underscored the importance of effective coordination and resource allocation.

  1. Ensuring continuity of care for discharged patients
  2. Addressing shortages in medical supplies and medications
  3. Adapting to reduced in-person healthcare services

Decentralization of Follow-up to Primary Healthcare Centers

Decentralization emerged as a strategy to alleviate the burden on hospitals by shifting follow-up care to primary healthcare centers. This approach aimed to provide more localized and accessible care, but also introduced complexities in case management, requiring enhanced collaboration and communication across different levels of healthcare provision.

  • Streamlining referral processes
  • Implementing community-based follow-up care
  • Integrating primary care with case management functions

The transition from emergency protocols to standard case management post-COVID-19 is a testament to the resilience and adaptability of healthcare systems worldwide.

Technological Advancements in Case Management

Integration of Virtual Case Management

The case management software market is poised for significant growth, driven by the increasing need for integrated healthcare systems and the rising demand for virtual case management. The pandemic has accelerated the adoption of digitalization and cloud-based solutions, enabling seamless communication and teamwork in a distributed work environment.

Case Management Software in Diverse Industries

While healthcare remains a key adopter, the applications of case management software are expanding into other industries. Legal workflow management systems and insurance companies are leveraging these technologies for growth. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of remote collaboration capabilities, with software facilitating seamless operations across various sectors.

Remote Collaboration and Workflow Management

Remote monitoring became a staple during covid and will remain a new technological tool in management of infectious disease

Market players are actively pursuing innovation through mergers and acquisitions, focusing on mobile-friendly and cloud-based solutions. These advancements support remote collaboration and workflow management, ensuring that case management software meets the evolving needs of customers in diverse industries. The market’s growth is geographically distributed, reflecting a broad and inclusive adoption trend.

The integration of advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning is set to automate case management further and provide predictive insights, enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of case management practices.

Post-COVID Conditions and Case Management

Long-term Health Effects and Care Strategies

The emergence of post-COVID conditions, often referred to as ‘long COVID’, has necessitated the development of comprehensive care strategies. Primary care providers are now pivotal in managing these conditions, which can persist for months and encompass a range of symptoms affecting various organ systems. A multidisciplinary approach, including physical, psychological, and social support, is essential for optimizing patient outcomes.

CDC Guidelines and Case Management Implications

The CDC has outlined a series of guidelines to assist healthcare providers in managing post-COVID conditions. These include patient-centered approaches and a thorough understanding of potential workplace exposures. Case managers play a crucial role in interpreting these guidelines and coordinating care across different healthcare settings.

Managing Potential Workplace Exposures

Healthcare workers face the challenge of potential workplace exposures to COVID-19. Effective case management involves not only addressing these risks but also ensuring that staff are equipped with the necessary knowledge and resources to manage their health proactively. This includes regular testing, adherence to infection control protocols, and pandemic planning scenarios.

It is imperative that case management protocols are adapted to include considerations for post-COVID conditions, ensuring that both patients and healthcare workers receive the support they need in the evolving landscape of the pandemic.

Case Management Aides and Support Planning

Role of Case Management Aides in Pandemic Response

Case management aides have been pivotal in the pandemic response, providing essential support to case managers and clients alike. Their role often includes assisting with documentation, coordinating services, and ensuring continuity of care. During the COVID-19 crisis, aides adapted to new protocols and played a key role in facilitating telehealth services.

Highlights from the web:

Support Planning for COVID-19 Affected Populations

Support planning for populations affected by COVID-19 requires a comprehensive approach that addresses both immediate and long-term needs. Case managers utilize a variety of tools and resources, including person-centered planning and informed choice protocols, to ensure that individuals receive tailored support that aligns with their goals and preferences.

Highlights from the web:

Person-Centered and Informed Choice Protocols

In the wake of the pandemic, the emphasis on person-centered and informed choice protocols has intensified. These protocols ensure that individuals are at the heart of the decision-making process regarding their care, promoting autonomy and respect for their choices. Adherence to these protocols is crucial for achieving positive outcomes and maintaining trust between clients and case management professionals.

Highlights from the web:

  • The Minnesota Olmstead Plan and the Person-Centered and Informed Choice Transition Protocol
  • Guide to encouraging informed choice and discussing risk

Healthcare Workers’ Perspectives on Pandemic Response

There were numerous challenges that case managers had to face during covid


Barriers and Enablers to Effective Case Management

Healthcare workers (HCWs) faced a myriad of challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, which also brought to light several enablers that facilitated case management. HCWs’ perceptions often differed from quantitative data, suggesting complexities in service utilization trends over time. Discrepancies may arise from factors such as recall bias and the dynamic nature of healthcare delivery during a crisis.

Healthcare Workers’ Insights on Service Delivery

The insights from HCWs revealed significant decreases in maternal, newborn, and child health services, attributed to various factors including fear of infection and resource shortages. The decentralization of follow-up to Primary Healthcare Centers emerged as a key facilitator, aligning with literature that supports effective disease management at these centers.

Community Health Seeking Behaviors During COVID-19

Qualitative interviews with HCWs highlighted changes in community health-seeking behaviors. The pandemic’s onset saw a shift in patient preferences and practices, with many opting for decentralized healthcare options when available. This shift underscores the importance of adaptable and responsive healthcare systems.

The perspectives of healthcare workers are invaluable in understanding the intricacies of pandemic response and the evolution of case management practices.

Social Determinants of Health in COVID-19 Case Management

Influence of Socioeconomic Factors on Health Outcomes

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the profound impact of socioeconomic factors on health outcomes. Disparities in infection rates, access to healthcare, and mortality have been observed across different socioeconomic groups. For instance, there was greater intra-domiciliary transmission among immigrants, likely related to the conditions of the home and situation of social vulnerability.

Addressing Social Needs in Case Management

Case managers have had to adapt to the complex social needs exacerbated by the pandemic. This includes identifying and addressing barriers to care such as housing instability, food insecurity, and unemployment. Effective case management during COVID-19 requires a holistic approach that considers these social determinants.

Strategies for Equitable Health Service Utilization

To ensure equitable health service utilization, strategies must be developed to overcome systemic barriers. This includes creating targeted outreach programs, enhancing community partnerships, and leveraging technology to reach underserved populations. The study by L\u00f3pez-G\u00fcell, Prats-Uribe, Catala, et al., evaluated the impact of COVID-19 certification mandates on case incidence and hospital admissions across different socioeconomic strata, providing insights into effective policy measures.

It is essential to integrate social determinants of health into case management frameworks to achieve better health outcomes and reduce inequalities.

Challenges and Recommendations for Remote Case Management

Identifying and Overcoming Remote Management Hurdles

The shift to remote case management has introduced a spectrum of hurdles, from technological barriers to communication breakdowns. Demand for virtual case management has surged, necessitating robust software that supports seamless communication and teamwork, particularly in a distributed work environment. Key challenges include ensuring data security, maintaining client confidentiality, and providing equitable access to technology for all clients.

Best Practices for Remote Case Management

To address these challenges, best practices have emerged. These include leveraging artificial intelligence and machine learning to automate processes and provide predictive insights, as well as developing mobile-friendly and cloud-based solutions for enhanced remote access and collaboration. Additionally, forming partnerships and integrations with complementary software solutions can offer more comprehensive services.

Recommendations from Global Health Organizations

Global health organizations have underscored the importance of cloud adoption, which has accelerated remote accessibility and been a game-changer in the case management software market. Recommendations focus on continuous training for case managers in digital competencies and the adoption of international standards for remote case management to ensure quality and consistency across the board.

The transition to remote case management requires a strategic approach that balances technological innovation with the human touch of traditional case management practices.

Pediatric Case Management During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Policy Adjustments for Pediatric Populations

The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated significant policy adjustments to ensure the continuity of pediatric case management. The suspension of in-person case management visits was one such change, allowing case managers to utilize phone or video communication. With the end of the public health emergency, agencies are now reverting to pre-pandemic protocols, which include face-to-face interactions.

Impact on Pediatric Health and Wellness

Pediatric health and wellness have been notably affected by the pandemic. There has been a decrease in primary and preventive services among children on Medicaid, particularly in the 0-5 age group. This decline in healthcare utilization may contribute to long-term health implications for this vulnerable population.

Case Management Strategies for Younger Patients

Developing effective case management strategies for younger patients has been crucial. These strategies must address the unique needs of children and their families, ensuring timely review and communication of clinic outcomes. Interventions during the pandemic have highlighted the importance of flexible and adaptive case management practices to support pediatric populations.

It is essential to recognize the role of social determinants in pediatric case management during the COVID-19 pandemic, as they significantly influence health outcomes.

Research and Resources for COVID-19 Case Management

Latest Findings in COVID-19 Case Management

The landscape of COVID-19 case management is continually evolving, with new research shedding light on effective strategies and outcomes. Key findings emphasize the importance of integrating real-time data analytics to track and predict patient needs, ensuring that case management can be proactive rather than reactive. Recent studies highlight the role of telehealth in maintaining continuity of care, especially for patients with long-term effects of COVID-19, known as ‘Long COVID’.

  • Real-time data analytics
  • Telehealth and continuity of care
  • Management of ‘Long COVID’

Essential Resources for Case Managers

Case managers have access to a plethora of resources designed to support their work during the pandemic. The CDC offers comprehensive guidance on topics such as Post-COVID ConditionsPotential Exposure at Work, and Pandemic Planning Scenarios. Additionally, tools like COVIDTracer and COVIDTracer Advanced are instrumental in contact tracing and exposure assessment.

  • CDC guidance and tools
  • Contact tracing resources
  • Exposure assessment tools

Standards of Practice and Professional Development

To maintain high standards of practice, case managers are encouraged to engage in ongoing professional development. Resources for training and certification, such as those provided by the AIHCP, ensure that case managers are equipped with the latest knowledge and skills. The evolving nature of the pandemic necessitates a commitment to learning and adaptation, with a focus on improving patient outcomes.

  • Training and certification
  • Commitment to learning
  • Focus on improving patient outcomes

It is imperative for case managers to stay abreast of the latest research and utilize available resources to deliver the highest quality of care in these unprecedented times.


There were numerous challenges that case managers had to face during covid

The COVID-19 pandemic has undeniably transformed the landscape of case management across various sectors, with a pronounced impact on healthcare systems worldwide. The exigencies of the pandemic necessitated a swift pivot to remote case management, leveraging technology to maintain continuity of care amidst unprecedented challenges. This transition, while initially a response to emergency protocols, has revealed both the potential and the limitations of virtual case management. As we move forward, it is imperative to integrate the lessons learned into a more resilient and adaptable case management framework. This includes addressing the nuances of face-to-face requirements, optimizing healthcare infrastructure, and ensuring comprehensive post-care for patients. The evolution of case management software and the decentralization of follow-up care to primary healthcare centers are indicative of a broader shift towards more accessible and efficient case management systems. However, the need for rigorous research, standardized protocols, and equitable resource allocation remains critical to support the ongoing demands of population health and to prepare for future public health emergencies.

Please also review AIHCP’s Case Management Certification and see if it meets your professional goals. The program is online and independent study and open to qualified professionals seeking a four year certification as a case manager in health care.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the face-to-face requirements for case management post COVID-19?

As of November 1, 2023, lead agencies must reinstate face-to-face case management visits, as the temporary COVID-19 policy allowing for remote visits has expired.

How should case managers document visits after the emergency protocols end?

Case managers should no longer note ‘COVID-19 Emergency Protocol’ at the top of case notes and should document visits according to standard procedures.

What changes have occurred in healthcare infrastructure due to COVID-19?

COVID-19 has led to adaptations such as the decentralization of follow-up to Primary Healthcare Centers and the integration of virtual case management systems.

What is the role of case management aides during the pandemic?

Case management aides have played a crucial role in pandemic response by assisting with support planning and ensuring continuity of care for affected populations.

How has pediatric case management adapted during the COVID-19 pandemic?

Pediatric case management has seen policy adjustments to address the specific health and wellness needs of younger patients, including changes to health service utilization.

What are some of the challenges faced in remote case management during COVID-19?

Challenges include identifying and overcoming hurdles in remote management, such as technology adoption, maintaining communication, and ensuring comprehensive care.

What are the social determinants of health that affect COVID-19 case management?

Factors such as socioeconomic status, access to healthcare, and housing conditions have influenced health outcomes and necessitated tailored case management strategies.

Where can case managers find the latest research and resources for COVID-19 case management?

Case managers can consult the DHS Case Manager and Care Coordinator Toolkit, scientific publications, and resources from global health organizations for up-to-date information.

Additional Resources

Hussein M. Tahan, PhD, RN, FAAN. “Essential Case Management Practices Amidst the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Crisis: Part 1”. Prof Case Manag. 2020 Jun 15 : 10.1097/NCM.0000000000000454. National library of Medicine. Access here

Baker, M. et, al.  “Case Management on the Front Lines of COVID-19: The Importance of the Individualized Care Plan Across Care Settings”. Professional Case Management2021 Mar-Apr;26(2):62-69. doi: 10.1097/NCM.0000000000000484.  National Library of Medicine. Access here

Treating COVID-19 at home: Care tips for you and others. Mayo Clinic. Access here

Witter, S. et, al. “Learning from implementation of a COVID case management desk guide and training: a pilot study in Sierra Leone”.  BMC Health Serv Res. 2023; 23: 1026. National Library of Medicine. Access here

Satisfaction among the Elderly with Telehealth during the Covid-19 Pandemic

By James M. Katz, BA

Telehealth is a rapidly growing field in the healthcare industry that uses technology to deliver care and services remotely. Telehealth can be used for a variety of purposes, including appointments, consultations, prescriptions, and follow-ups.

While telehealth has many benefits, including increased access to care, improved quality of care, and lower costs, there are some challenges that need to be addressed. These challenges include provider training and reimbursement, as well as ensuring patient privacy and security.

Telehealth Concept Picture
Is Telehealth growing?

The article below discusses how health care professionals turned to telehealth as a way to deliver their services to patients during the Covid-19 pandemic. The patients in the study were mostly elderly and from various cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Most scored their satisfaction 6 out of 7. Some of the patients did not find telehealth enjoyable and preferred inpatient treatment. The following article goes into further detail.

“Amid the implementation of restrictions on in-person care during the COVID-19 pandemic, many patients and providers turned to telehealth. Telehealth helped maintain care access during this time, especially for seniors, but researchers from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center wanted to determine patient satisfaction levels among the geriatric population that used virtual care.

For the study, they sent a patient satisfaction questionnaire to 278 patients over 65, 208 of whom completed the survey. The study period ranged from April 2020 to June 2021.”

Older Adults Satisfied with Telehealth During COVID-19 Pandemic, Mark Melchionna, mHealth Intelligence. October 10, 2022
Access Article here 


Satisfaction of Telehealth:

Patients who used telehealth were more likely to report satisfaction with their care, including feeling more connected to their doctor and having better communication with their provider. They were also more likely to say they felt involved in their own care and that their care was coordinated.

Patients who used telehealth were also more likely to report better health outcomes, including fewer emergency room visits and hospitalizations, and better management of chronic conditions.

Benefits of Telehealth:

In recent years, telehealth has become an increasingly popular option for older adults. Telehealth allows patients to consult with their doctors remotely, using a computer, tablet, or smartphone. This can be especially beneficial for older adults who may have difficulty travelling to see their doctor in person.

There are a number of reasons why telehealth may be a good option for older adults. First, it can help them save time and money on travel costs. Second, it can provide them with more flexibility in terms of when and where they can consult with their doctor. And third, it can give them peace of mind knowing that they can still receive high-quality care even if they are not able to physically visit their doctor’s office.

In the past, patients had to physically go to a doctor’s office or hospital for medical care. This is no longer the case with the advent of telehealth, which allows patients to receive care remotely using technology. There are many benefits of telehealth, including increased access to care, improved outcomes, and lower costs.

Disadvantages of Telehealth:

Although telehealth has the potential to improve access to care, there are a few potential disadvantages of using telehealth services, especially when compared to in-person visits with healthcare providers. One such disadvantage is that patients may not be able to get the same level of care through a virtual visit as they would if they were meeting with their provider face-to-face.

Another potential downside to telehealth is that it can be difficult to build rapport and trust with your provider when you’re not meeting in person. This can be especially true if you’re using video conferencing for your visits, as it can be harder to read body language and cues when you’re not in the same room as the other person.

Finally, there’s always the possibility that technology will fail during a telehealth visit, which could lead to disruptions in care or even put patient safety at risk.

Is Telehealth for you?

When it comes to your health, you want the best care possible. You want to be able to see a doctor when you need to and get the treatments you need to feel better. But what if you can’t always get to the doctor’s office? What if you don’t have transportation or you live in a rural area? Telehealth might be the solution for you.

There are many benefits of telehealth. It increases access to care, especially for those who live in rural areas or who have transportation issues.

In conclusion, telehealth is a growing field that is changing how healthcare is delivered. It has the potential to improve access to care, reduce costs, and improve outcomes. However, there are challenges that need to be addressed, such as reimbursement, workforce issues, and technology infrastructure. With the right policies and investments in place, telehealth can help transform the healthcare system and improve the health of Americans.

Health Care Management:

Are you a health care professional who is interested in becoming certified as a Health Care Manager? If so, please review the Health Care Manager and Nurse Management Certification programs offered by the American Institute of Health Care Professionals, Inc. The program is based on open enrollment and is self-paced, meaning you are free to start whenever you are ready and you can move through it at your own speed. All of the exams are 100% online. The CE courses have board approvals as well. To begin, you may preview our program by Clicking Here.

Additional Resources:

Patient and family engagement: a survey of US hospital practices. Jeph Herrin, Et.Al. PMC PubMed Central Epub  June 16, 2015.
Access Here

VA/Pitt Study Shows Telehealth Effective, Preferred for Veterans’ Wheelchair Design and Fit. Sheila Tunney. University of Pittsburgh School of Health and Rehabilitation Services, December 2020.
Access Here 

Strategies for Evaluating Telehealth. Dr. John Chuo Et.Al. American Academy of Pediatrics Volume 146 Issue 5. November 1, 2020
Access here 

Patient and clinician experiences with telehealth for patient follow-up care. Karen Dolenan Et.Al. The American Journal of Managed Care, 01  25(1):40-44 PMID: 30667610 January 2019.
Access here



Grief Counseling Certification Article on Collective Grief of Covid

Interesting look at the lack of collective grief in some areas of the nation over the immense loss from COVID.  While some areas collectively understand the grief the nation is facing, other areas do not.  Collective grief is important as a nation when disaster strikes, to identify loss and come together.

The pandemic and its damage to society does not equal the collective outcry of grief that it should so far. Please also review AIHCP’s Grief Counseling Certification


The article, “More Than 250,000 Are Dead. Why Is There So Little Collective Grief?” by Corrine and Erik Ofgang look at the number of dead due to COVID and ask why society is not grieving enough over this in the USA.  They state,

“A large portion of the population believes the falsehoods that the virus is a hoax or the numbers of dead are inflated, and grief itself has become politicized with some worrying that too much focus on rising death counts will discourage economic recovery. But these factors alone can’t explain the lack of collective response.”

With lack of many visuals of the death, society may not also be recognizing the dangers.  To read the entire article, please click here

Please also review The American Academy of Grief Counseling’s Grief Counseling Certification and see if it meets your academic and professional goals.